Human Anatomy and Physiology : Identifying Other Anatomical Structures

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for Human Anatomy and Physiology

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Identifying Other Anatomical Structures

Which of the following is not a layer of the epidermis?

Possible Answers:

Stratum epidermidis

Stratum basalis

Stratum granulosum

Stratum lucidum

Stratum corneum

Correct answer:

Stratum epidermidis

Explanation:

There are five layers of the epidermis. From surface to base, the layers are the stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum and stratum basalis.

The stratum corneum is composed of several layers of barrier cells and serves mostly for protection. The stratum lucidum is only found in the palms and soles and helps thicken the skin. The stratum granulosum contains lipids and fatty acids. The stratum spinosum contains some immune cells, as well as lipids. The stratum basalis contains melanocytes and mechanoreceptor cells attached to the basement membrane.

Example Question #237 : Organs

What body part does lacrimal fluid lubricate?

Possible Answers:

The mouth

The stomach

The eyeball

The vas deferens

Synovial joints

Correct answer:

The eyeball

Explanation:

Lacrimal glands are located superior to and along the lateral half of both eyeballs, and are responsible for keeping the eyes moist and creating tears. The lacrimal fluid is drained via the lacrimal ducts into the nasal cavity, which is why there is increased nasal drainage when crying.

Example Question #2 : Identifying Other Anatomical Structures

Which of the following valves allows blood to flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle?

Possible Answers:

Mitral valve

Pulmonary valve

Aortic valve

Tricuspid valve

Correct answer:

Mitral valve

Explanation:

The atrium and ventricle on each side of the heart are separated from one another by the atrioventricular valves. There is also another pair of valves that separate the ventricles from the arteries exiting the ventricles, known as the semilunar valves. The semilunar valves are the pulmonary and aortic valves, which separate the ventricles from the pulmonary trunk and aorta respectively. The tricuspid valve is found between the right atrium and ventricle, while the mitral (bicuspid) valve is found between the left atrium and ventricle.

Example Question #3 : Identifying Other Anatomical Structures

What is the site of maturation for T-lymphocytes?

Possible Answers:

Liver

Bone marrow

Spleen

Thymus

Correct answer:

Thymus

Explanation:

T-lymphocytes mature in the thymus, where they interact with "self antigens." This process ensures that T-lymphocytes do not interact with antigens found in the body. If the immature cell interacts with self antigens, the T-lymphocyte will be destroyed. Mature T-lymphocytes that still react to self antigens can cause allergic reactions and autoimmune disease.

B-lymphocytes, in contrast, mature in the bone marrow. Both types of lymphocyte originate from stem cells in the bone marrow, but differ in their site of maturation.

Example Question #4 : Identifying Other Anatomical Structures

Where do B-lymphocytes differentiate and mature in the body?

Possible Answers:

Lymph nodes

Thymus

Pancreas

Bone marrow

Correct answer:

Bone marrow

Explanation:

B-lymphocytes mature in the bone marrow. They can also be created and matured in the live. Both types of lymphocyte originate from stem cells in the bone marrow, but differ in their site of maturation.

T-lymphocytes mature in the thymus, where they interact with "self antigens." This process ensures that T-lymphocytes do not interact with antigens found in the body. If the immature cell interacts with self antigens, the T-lymphocyte will be destroyed. Mature T-lymphocytes that still react to self antigens can cause allergic reactions and autoimmune disease.

Mature lymphocytes are most commonly found in the lymph nodes, where they screen the plasma and fluids for antigens.

Example Question #5 : Identifying Other Anatomical Structures

In which abdominopelvic region is the appendix located?

Possible Answers:

Right iliac

Umbilical

Right hypochondriac

Epigastric

Right lumbar

Correct answer:

Right iliac

Explanation:

The appendix is located in the lower right corner of the abdominopelvic cavity, of which there are nine regions. The lower corners are known as the iliac regions, named after the adjacent coxal section. The lumbar regions are located directly superior of the iliac regions, and the hypochondriac regions are directly superior to the lumbar regions. Medial to the hypochondriac, lumbar, and iliac regions are (from superior to inferior) the epigastric, umbilical and hypogastric regions.

Orientation of abdominopelvic regions:

Example Question #6 : Identifying Other Anatomical Structures

The pleural cavity contains what organ?

Possible Answers:

Heart

Brain

Lungs

Rectum

Diaphragm

Correct answer:

Lungs

Explanation:

The body can be divided into two main cavities: the dorsal cavity and the ventral cavity. The ventral cavity contains several subdivision, namely the thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic cavities. Of these, only the thoracic cavity can be further divided.

Within the thoracic cavity are the two pleural cavities, separated by a central pericardial cavity. The pleural cavities are defined by the pleural space and membranes around the lungs. This is the region that must expand in order to generate the negative pressure that is necessary for inspiration.

The diaphragm is a muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity. The rectum is located in the pelvic cavity. The heart has its own cavity called the pericardial, which is another subset of the thoracic cavity. The brain is in the cranial cavity, a subset of the dorsal body cavity. 

Example Question #7 : Identifying Other Anatomical Structures

Which of the following epidermal layers is only found in the palms and soles of the feet?

Possible Answers:

Stratum basale

Stratum corneum

Stratum lucidum

Stratum granulosum

Correct answer:

Stratum lucidum

Explanation:

The skin is made up of two major components: the superficial epidermis layer and the deep dermis layer. The epidermis is essentially made up of four layers, however, there is an additional layer found in regions of thick skin. The four principle epidermal layers, going from superficial to deep, are the stratum corneum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, and stratum basale. In regions of thick skin (namely the soles of the feet and palms of the hands) there is an additional layer of cells located between the stratum corneum and stratum granulosum, known as the stratum lucidum, which serves to enhance protection and cushioning of these areas.

Example Question #8 : Identifying Other Anatomical Structures

Which of the following is the innermost layer of the hair shaft?

Possible Answers:

Dermal root sheath

Cortex

Medulla

Cuticle

Correct answer:

Medulla

Explanation:

A hair has two principle parts: the shaft and the root. The shaft is seen above the skin and the root stays deep within the skin surface. The shaft and the root are made of keratinized epithelial cells, which have ceased to divide and are considered non-living. The cells of the hair are organized into three layers. The cuticle is the outermost layer, which wraps around the hair exterior. The next layer is the cortex, which surrounds the innermost layer, the medulla. The root sheath structure is separate from the actual hair and is constructed from living epithelial cells that anchor and nourish the hair.

Example Question #9 : Identifying Other Anatomical Structures

A 19-year old man was crossing the street when he was struck by a car turning the corner. He is brought to the trauma bay with an open right tib-fib fracture (both tibia and fibula fractured). The man is brought to the OR for intramedullary nailing. After placing the rod, the surgeon decides to check muscle compartment pressures for compartment syndrome. What are the four muscle compartments in the leg?

Possible Answers:

Dorsal, plantar, lateral, posterior

Dorsal, palmar, medial, lateral

Anteromedial, anterolateral, superficial posterior, deep posterior

Anterior, lateral, superficial posterior, deep posterior

Anterior, lateral, medial, posterior

Correct answer:

Anterior, lateral, superficial posterior, deep posterior

Explanation:

The four leg compartments are anterior, lateral, superficial posterior, and deep posterior.

The anterior compartment contains muscles, nerves, and vessels for dorsiflexion. From medial to lateral, these are the: tibialis anterior, extensor hallucis longus, anterior tibial artery, deep peroneal nerve, extensor digitorum longus, and peroneus tertius. The lateral compartment consists of the peroneus longus and brevis, and superficial peroneal nerve for feet eversion. The superficial posterior compartment is for plantarflexion, consisting of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles and the sural nerve. The deep posterior compartment contains the tibialis posterior, flexor digitorum longus, posterior tibial artery and vein, tibial nerve, and flexor hallucis longus.

All of these compartments need to be evaluated when a tibia fracture occurs, as pressures could rise and cut off nerve and/or vascular supply.

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