Human Anatomy and Physiology : Identifying Bones of the Upper Extremities

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for Human Anatomy and Physiology

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Identifying Bones Of The Upper Extremities

Which of the following is not found on the scapula?

Possible Answers:

Coronoid process

Acromial process

Supraspinous fossa

Glenoid fossa

Coracoid process

Correct answer:

Coronoid process

Explanation:

The scapula is located posterior to the ribs and is used in the shoulder joint to house the head of the humerus and the acromion of the clavicle.

The acromion of the clavicle interfaces with the acromion process, while the head of the humerus interfaces with the glenoid fossa. The coracoacromial ligament runs between the acromion process and coracoid process and serves to stabilize and protect the muscles of the shoulder. Damage to this ligament results in a separated shoulder. The supraspinous fossa is located on the posterior of the scapula and serves as the point of origin for the supraspinatus muscle.

The coronoid process is found on the ulna and interfaces with the coronoid fossa of the humerus in the elbow. Damage or dislocation of the elbow can cause the coronoid process to fracture.

Example Question #2 : Identifying Bones Of The Upper Extremities

Which of the following is located adjacent to the hamate?

Possible Answers:

Cuboid

Navicular

Capitate

Scaphoid

First metacarpal

Correct answer:

Capitate

Explanation:

The hamate is one of the carpals, located in the wrist. There are eight carpal bones, roughly organized into two rows. The triquetral, lunate, and scaphoid are aligned in a row from medial to lateral at the interface of the carpals with the ulna and radius. The pisiform is located anterior to the triquetral and occupies a slightly different plane than the other carpals. Distal to the row formed by the triquetral, lunate, and scaphoid are the remaining carpals: the hamate, capitate, trapezoid, and trapezium (ordered medial to lateral).

The cuboid and navicular are tarsal bones, located in the ankle and foot.

Example Question #3 : Identifying Bones Of The Upper Extremities

What is the name of the bone in the forearm medial to the body?

Possible Answers:

Ulna

Radius

Humerus

Clavicle

Correct answer:

Ulna

Explanation:

The forearm has two bones: the radius and the ulna. In order to determine which forearm bone is medial to the body, we need to remember standard anatomical position. In this position, the palms face outward, meaning the pinky is the closest finger to the body. The ulna is on the side of the pinky, while the radius is on the side of the thumb. As a result, the ulna is the forearm bone medial to the body.

The humerus is located proximal to the radius and ulna and forms the shoulder joint with the scapula. The clavicle is superior to the humerus and articulates with the scapula above the shoulder.

Example Question #4 : Identifying Bones Of The Upper Extremities

Which of the following is a common place for fracture of the humerus?

 

Possible Answers:

Surgical neck

Anatomic neck

Head

Spiral groove

Correct answer:

Surgical neck

Explanation:

The humerus articulates with the scapula, making the glenohumeral joint at the head, and the radius and ulna, making the elbow joint at the trochlea. The anatomic neck is the area immediately below the head that functions as attachment for the joint capsule of the glenohumeral joint. The spiral groove houses the radial nerve and serves as an attachment site for the lateral and medial head of the biceps brachii.

The surgical neck is located between the anatomical neck and shaft of the humerus, marking a narrower region of the bone. The surgical neck is the most common site of fracture on the humerus. The axillary nerve and the posterior humeral circumflex artery also course through this region and can be damaged in the case of injury.

 

Example Question #5 : Identifying Bones Of The Upper Extremities

There are __________ carpal bones in the wrist and hand.

Possible Answers:

eight

ten

nine

five

Correct answer:

eight

Explanation:

The carpal bones are found arranged in two layers of four in the hand. The first row, lateral to medial, is made of the scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, and pisiform. The distal row, from lateral to medial, is made of the trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, and hamate. A fracture of the scaphoid during a fall on an outstretched hand can damage the radial artery. A fracture of the hamate can cause damage to the ulnar nerve and artery.

The carpal bones articulate with the radius bone in the forearm to create the wrist; the ulna has no contact with the carpal bones in the hand.  

Example Question #6 : Identifying Bones Of The Upper Extremities

The coronoid process is a structure on which bone? 

Possible Answers:

Clavicle

Scapula 

Ulna

First rib 

Correct answer:

Ulna

Explanation:

The coronoid process is a structure on the proximal ulna, not to be confused with the coracoid on the scapula or the conoid on the clavicle. The coronoid process forms part of the trochlear notch on the ulna.

Example Question #7 : Identifying Bones Of The Upper Extremities

Which bone contains the olecranon fossa?

Possible Answers:

Fibula

Tibia

Ulna

Radius

Humerus

Correct answer:

Humerus

Explanation:

When the ulna is extended, the olecranon, which is an extension of the ulna, fits into the olecranon fossa of the humerus. 

Example Question #8 : Identifying Bones Of The Upper Extremities

Which muscle is responsible for initiating abduction of the arm?

Possible Answers:

Infraspinatus

Deltoid

Teres minor

Supraspinatus

Subscapularis

Correct answer:

Supraspinatus

Explanation:

The supraspinatus is responsible for initiating abduction of the arm for the first 15 degrees, while the deltoid continues the abduction. 

Example Question #9 : Identifying Bones Of The Upper Extremities

Which of the following is not a rotator cuff muscle?

Possible Answers:

Infraspinatus

Subscapularis

Supraspinatus

Teres minor

Teres major

Correct answer:

Teres major

Explanation:

There are only four muscles that comprise the rotator cuff. All of the answer choices except the teres major are rotator cuff muscles.

Example Question #10 : Identifying Bones Of The Upper Extremities

The scaphoid is located proximal to which bone?

Possible Answers:

Ulna

Pisiform

Triquetrum

Trapezium

Lunate

Correct answer:

Trapezium

Explanation:

The wrist contains 8 carpal bones. The scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, and pisiform make up the proximal row, while the trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, and hamate make up the distal row. A mnemonic to help you remember these eight bones is: Some Lovers Try Positions That They Can't Handle. In the anatomical position, from lateroproximal to mediodistal: Scaphoid, Lunate, Triquetrum, Pisiform, Trapezium, Trapezoid, Capitate, Hamate.

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