Human Anatomy and Physiology : Identifying Bones of the Trunk and Core

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for Human Anatomy and Physiology

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Bones

What vertebra do the occipital condyles attach to in order to allow a nodding motion of the head?

Possible Answers:

Sacrum

Axis

Atlas

Thoracic vertebrae

Correct answer:

Atlas

Explanation:

The top two cervical vertebrae (C1 and C2) are responsible for allowing the head to move in a nodding motion, as well as side to side. The atlas is the first cervical vertebra (C1), and attaches to the occipital condyles in order to allow a nodding motion. The axis is the second cervical vertebra (C2) and allows for twisting motion from side to side.

The thoracic vertebrae are located in the trunk and allow for twisting motion, and some bending (though this is mostly allowed by the lumbar region). The sacrum is located inferior to the lumbar vertebrae and does not substantially contribute to movement.

Example Question #2 : Bones

How many cervical vertebrae are there in the human body?

Possible Answers:

Twelve

Seven

Four

Five

Correct answer:

Seven

Explanation:

There are 33 vertebrae in the human body: 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, 5 lumbar vertebrae, 5 (fused) sacral vertebrae, 3-4 (fused) coccygeal vertebrae.

Example Question #1 : Identifying Bones Of The Trunk And Core

The spinous process of the seventh thoracic vertebrae (T7) sits at what level?

Possible Answers:

T6

T7

T8

T9

Correct answer:

T8

Explanation:

The spinous processes of the vertebrae largely dictate their range of motion and ability to interlock with adjacent vertebrae. Cervical vertebrae have short, bifid (split) spinous processes to facilitate a wide range of movement. The neck is capable of twisting, nodding, and lateral deviation. Thoracic vertebrae have long spinous processes that point to the inferior and align with the vertebra immediately inferior. This promotes anterior concavity, allowing the motion of bending forward. Lumbar vertebrae have shorter posterior spinous processes that do not interact with adjacent vertebrae. This allows for twisting motions, as well as anterior and posterior concavity. Next to the cervical vertebrae, the lumbar vertebrae have the largest range of articulation.

Example Question #4 : Bones

Which of the following best describes the primary curvatures of the spine?

Possible Answers:

Only the thoracic curvature

Lumbar and sacral curvatures

Cervical and lumbar curvatures

Cervical and thoracic curvatures

Thoracic and sacral curvatures

Correct answer:

Thoracic and sacral curvatures

Explanation:

Primary curvatures of the spine reflect the original shape of the embryo, and are concave to the anterior. The thoracic and sacral curvatures are examples of primary spinal curvatures. Exaggeration of these curvatures is considered kyphosis.

The cervical and lumbar curvatures are examples of secondary curvatures and are concave to the posterior. Exaggeration of these curvatures is considered lordosis.

Example Question #2 : Identifying Bones Of The Trunk And Core

Which of the following is not a part of the sternum?

Possible Answers:

Manubrium

Body

Zygomatic process

Xiphoid process

Correct answer:

Zygomatic process

Explanation:

The sternum is a bone that is a part of the skeleton of the thorax. It is made of three components: the manubrium, the body, and the xiphoid process. The manubrium is the portion closest to the neck area and has articulations with the clavicle on both sides. It also has three additional articulations: the first rib cartilage, the second rib, and the body of the sternum. The last of these is called the manubriosternal joint, or the angle of Louis. The body of the sternum further articulates with the xiphoid process to form the xiphisternal joint. These angles are important landmarks in locating structures in the thoracic cavity. The xiphoid process can be felt in the epigastric quadrant of the abdomen.

The zygomatic process is a region of the skull. Technically, the zygomatic process is made of three components: the zygomatic process of the frontal bone, the zygomatic process of the maxilla, and the zygomatic process of the temporal bone.

Example Question #3 : Identifying Bones Of The Trunk And Core

How many pairs of ribs can be found in the thoracic cavity?

Possible Answers:

Seven

Ten

Thirteen

Twelve

Correct answer:

Twelve

Explanation:

In a human skeleton, there are twelve pairs of ribs found in the thoracic cavity. They extend from the vertebrae and some have attachments to the sternum in the anterior. The ribs provide protection for the organs in the thorax and aid in changing the anterior to posterior and transverse diameter of the chest.

There are three classifications of ribs: true, false, and floating. True ribs are ribs 1 to 7 and attach to the sternum directly. False ribs are ribs 8 to 10 and attach to the cartilage of the ribs above. Ribs 11 and 12 are floating ribs in that they have no anterior attachments.

Example Question #7 : Bones

Which of the following is not part of the pelvic girdle?

Possible Answers:

Pubis

Ischium

Femur

Sacrum

Ilium

Correct answer:

Femur

Explanation:

The pelvic girdle is the combination of pelvis and the sacrum, which form a closed transverse ring. The ilium, the ischium, and the pubis form the pelvis. These three bones fuse together at the acetabulum. The femur articulates with the acetabulum, but is not considered part of the pelvic girdle.

Example Question #4 : Identifying Bones Of The Trunk And Core

Which bone is used to determine sexual identity because the opening is larger in females to facilitate childbirth?

Possible Answers:

Sacrum

Tarsus

Coccyx

Pelvis

Pectoral girdle

Correct answer:

Pelvis

Explanation:

The lower part of the pelvis is formed by the ileum, ishium, and pubic bones. These bones join to create a cavity. This cavity is larger in females to allow the passage of an infant during childbirth.

The pectoral girdle is made up of the scapulae (shoulder blades) and clavicles (collar bones). The coccyx, also referred to as the tailbone, is located at the inferior of the spinal column. The sacrum is a curved set of fused bones that forms part of the posterior pelvis. The tarsus is the collection of seven bones in the foot that form the ankle and instep.

Example Question #5 : Identifying Bones Of The Trunk And Core

Which bones have articulations that connect them to the ribs?

Possible Answers:

Cervical vertebrae

Sacrum

Lumbar vertebrae

Thoracic vertebrae

Coccyx

Correct answer:

Thoracic vertebrae

Explanation:

There are twelve thoracic vertebrae, labeled T1 to T12. They have articulations (joints) that connect them with the rib cage. The cervical vertebrae, labeled C1-C7, are located in the neck. The lumbar vertebrae, labeled L1-L5, are located in the lower back. The sacrum is a segment of the vertebral column that forms part of the posterior pelvis. The coccyx, or tailbone, is the most inferior part of the vertebral column.

Example Question #10 : Identifying Bones Of The Trunk And Core

What small bone of the trunk ossifies in adulthood, serves as one of several origins for the diaphragm, and can be damaged by improper CPR administration?

Possible Answers:

Xiphoid process

Manubrium

False ribs

True ribs

Sternum

Correct answer:

Xiphoid process

Explanation:

The xiphoid process is the inferior most portion of the sternum. It begins as a thin strip of cartilage, but slowly ossifies during adulthood. It serves a vital role in respiration as one of the origins of the diaphragm. It is relatively fragile and its position makes it a prime candidate to be damaged by the compression during CPR.

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