Human Anatomy and Physiology : Identifying Bones of the Lower Extremities

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for Human Anatomy and Physiology

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Identifying Bones Of The Lower Extremities

What bone is most anterior in the leg?

Possible Answers:

Fibula

Tibia

Femur

Ilium

Correct answer:

Tibia

Explanation:

The leg is the section of the lower limb distal to the knee cap. The two bones of the leg are the tibia and fibula. The fibula is located posterolateral to the tibia, making the tibia the more anterior of the two.

The femur is located in the thigh, and the ilium forms part of the pelvis. These are both located proximal to the leg.

Example Question #2 : Identifying Bones Of The Lower Extremities

A 36-year old woman presents to the trauma bay with intense right foot and ankle pain following a high-speed motor vehicle collision in which she slammed on the brakes. After examining her and taking X-rays and a CT scan, you diagnose her with a talar neck fracture. This type of injury is due to a high-energy mechanism in which the dorsiflexed foot is subjected to axial load (compression). Because the talus articulates with many bones, it is often broken in these types of injuries.

What bone does not articulate with the talus?

Possible Answers:

Calcaneus

Cuboid

Fibula

Tibia

Navicular

Correct answer:

Cuboid

Explanation:

The cuboid does not articulate with the talus.

The calcaneus articulates with the talus to form the subtalar joint. The ankle joint is formed by the articulation of the talus with the tibia and fibula and is commonly injured as well in compression type injuries (usually a plafond fracture). The navicular articulates with the talus anteromedially.

Example Question #3 : Identifying Bones Of The Lower Extremities

Which is not an area of the coxal bone?

Possible Answers:

Pubis

Coccyx

Ilium

Acetabulum

Ischium

Correct answer:

Coccyx

Explanation:

The coxal bone, also known as the pelvis, is composed of three main regions: the ilium, ischium, and pubis. The ilium is the most superior of these structures, forming the iliac crests that serve as the origin and insertion for several muscles. The ischium and pubis are inferior to the ilium and join together to form the obturator foramen, with the ischium posterior to the pubis. The acetabulum is the smooth depression, or fossa, in the hip bone where the head of the femur sits. The ilium, ischium, and pubis all come together to form the acetabulum.

The coccyx is also known as the tailbone, and is an extension of the spinal column.

Example Question #3 : Identifying Bones Of The Lower Extremities

The fibula is located in which structure?

Possible Answers:

Thigh

Leg

Ankle

Knee

Correct answer:

Leg

Explanation:

Anatomical definitions determine the thigh to be the region between the knee and hip, and the leg to be the region between the knee and ankle. The thigh houses the femur, while the leg houses the tibia and fibula. The fibula articulates with the talus, one of the seven bones found in the ankle, at its distal end and the femur at its proximal end. This distal articulation is part of the ankle joint, while the proximal articulation is part of the knee joint.

The tibia is the larger bone of the two, and is responsible for carrying the majority of the weight of the lower limb.

Example Question #5 : Identifying Bones Of The Lower Extremities

The three cone-shaped cuneiform bones in the foot are part of the larger group of bones commonly referred to as the __________.

Possible Answers:

phalanges

tarsal bones

None of these

metatarsal bones

cuboids

Correct answer:

tarsal bones

Explanation:

The seven tarsal bones, including the three cuneiform bones, form the posterior of the foot immediately distal to the heel. Together with the five metatarsals and the fourteen phalanges, these twenty-six bones allow for the tremendous distribution of force necessary for bipedal locomotion. 

Example Question #4 : Identifying Bones Of The Lower Extremities

Which of the following correctly lists the bones of the lower extremities, proximal-to-distal?

Possible Answers:

Femur, tibia, metatarsals, tarsals

Metatarsals, tarsals, tibia, femur

Femur, tibia, tarsals, metatarsals

Tibia, tarsals, metatarsals, femur

Femur, tarsals, tibia, metatarsals

Correct answer:

Femur, tibia, tarsals, metatarsals

Explanation:

Moving proximal-to-distal (away from the body's core, towards the end of the foot), the order of bones is the femur (thigh), tibia (leg), tarsals (foot bones close to ankle), metatarsals (foot bones far from ankle).

Example Question #4 : Identifying Bones Of The Lower Extremities

Which of the following is a common site for bone marrow biopsy in children due to its large size?

Possible Answers:

Shoulder girdle

Femur

Sternum

Pelvic girdle

Correct answer:

Femur

Explanation:

A bone marrow biopsy is a procedure involving the removal of the fluid and a sample of bone from the marrow found at the center of some bones in the body. Aspiration, on the other hand, is only the removal of the fluid. The sample is acquired through a needle under anesthesia. The sample contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets, which can be observed under a microscope for abnormalities in numbers and shape. The results can also be used to look for spread of infection into the bone, as well as cancer.

The most common places for obtaining a sample in an adult are flat bones, namely the sternum and pelvic girdle. In children, the femur is a first choice. It is a long bone and is a major site of hematopoiesis in individuals younger than the age of 18.

Example Question #5 : Identifying Bones Of The Lower Extremities

Which of the following is not a bone of the foot?

Possible Answers:

Scaphoid

Navicular

Calcaneus

Talus

Correct answer:

Scaphoid

Explanation:

To remember the names of the tarsals, use the following mnemonic: Tiger Cubs Need MILC: Talus Calcaneus Navicular Medial Cuneiform Intermediate Cuneiform Lateral Cuneiform Cuboid. The scaphoid is carpal, all the others are a tarsals.

Example Question #6 : Identifying Bones Of The Lower Extremities

Which of the following is not a feature of the femur?

Possible Answers:

Malleolus

Linea aspera

Medial condyle

Patellar surface

Correct answer:

Malleolus

Explanation:

Each of these are features of the femur except the malleolus. That is a feature of the tibia and fibula. The linea aspera is located along the posterior surface of the femur. The femur has a medial and a lateral condyle at its distal end. The patellar surface articulates with the patella.

Example Question #6 : Identifying Bones Of The Lower Extremities

Which of the following is the weight-bearing bone of the lower leg.

Possible Answers:

Calcaneus

Talus

Tibia

Fibula

Femur

Correct answer:

Tibia

Explanation:

The correct answer is the tibia. While the distal ends of the fibula and tibia connect the knee to the ankle at the talocrural hinge joint, it is the tibia that is "weight-bearing" and one can see that it bears the majority of the weight by the way it aligns with the femur. It is also the thicker than the fibula. The talus is the lower ankle bone whose proximal end articulates with the distal ends of the tibia and fibula. Again, its articulation with the tibia bears more weight than it does with fibula. The calcaneus is the heel bone or the part of your foot you might want to karate kick with. The femur is not in the lower leg.

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