Human Anatomy and Physiology : Help with Vascular and Lymphatic Injuries and Disorders

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for Human Anatomy and Physiology

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Example Questions

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Example Question #141 : Injuries And Disorders

What lymphatic disorder is defined as an excessive pooling or accumulation of fluid in the body?

Possible Answers:

Lymphocytosis

Lymphangitis

Castleman's disease

Lymphedema

Lymphoma

Correct answer:

Lymphedema

Explanation:

Lymphedema (commonly just "edema") is an excessive buildup of fluid in the body's tissues caused by a failure of the lymphatic system to properly balance fluids. The causes vary widely—from poor diet to malignant cancers—and it is usually seen as part of a wider constellation of symptoms. Lymphedema is also a common complication of surgery.

Example Question #2 : Circulatory And Respiratory Systems

Which of the following symptoms is not normally associated with Buerger's disease?

Possible Answers:

Pain in the extremities

Inflammation

Gangrene

Discoloration

Arrhythmia

Correct answer:

Arrhythmia

Explanation:

Buerger's disease commonly affects small arteries, veins, and nerves, narrowing the channels through which blood flows and causing ischemia (lack of blood supply) to the extremities. Long associated with tobacco exposure, the disease can cause gangrene and lead to amputation of the fingers, toes, hands and feet its most severe form.

Example Question #3 : Circulatory And Respiratory Systems

Wells' criteria is used to identify patients at risk of developing lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Which of the following is not one of those criteria?

Possible Answers:

Symptomatic calf is swollen greater than 3cm (compared to other leg)

Symptomatic leg demonstrates pitting edema

Patient has active cancer

Pratt's test

Patient has prior history of a DVT

Correct answer:

Pratt's test

Explanation:

Although Pratt's test is not part of Wells' criteria, it is used to screen for DVT's. It involves squeezing the patient's popliteal vein, in the symptomatic leg. A test is considered positive if it causes pain. The other answers listed are part of Wells' criteria.

Example Question #142 : Injuries And Disorders

What is Kawasaki disease?

Possible Answers:

A type of digestive disorder

It is not a disease or a disorder

A disease caused after motor cycle crashes

A form of vasculitis that causes inflammation of the blood vessel walls throughout the body

Correct answer:

A form of vasculitis that causes inflammation of the blood vessel walls throughout the body

Explanation:

Kawaski disease is a rare childhood disease that is a form of vasculitis. The walls of blood vessels throughout the body become inflamed with no known cause. It cannot be prevented, but most children recover after a few weeks.

Example Question #143 : Injuries And Disorders

What is Raynaud's disease?

Possible Answers:

A disorder that affects sleep patterns

A disorder that affects the arteries

A disorder that affects gait

A disorder that affects hair growth

Correct answer:

A disorder that affects the arteries

Explanation:

Raynaud's disease is a rare disorder that cause the arteries of the body to have episodes of vasospasms. These vasospasms affect blood flow to the finger and toes most often. The disorder is often managed by minor lifestyle changes.

Example Question #6 : Circulatory And Respiratory Systems

What is sickle cell disease?

Possible Answers:

Another name for type II diabetes

Another term for anemia

Inherited disease affecting white blood cells, causing them to become sickle shaped

Inherited group of red blood cell disorders, featuring abnormal hemoglobin

Correct answer:

Inherited group of red blood cell disorders, featuring abnormal hemoglobin

Explanation:

Sickle cell disease is inherited red blood cell disorders, which cause abnormal hemoglobin to be created. This hemoglobin is known as "hemoglobin S" or sickle hemoglobin. The incorrect structure of the hemoglobin S causes a reduction the red blood cell's ability to travel through blood vessels and transport oxygen to tissues. It also causes the classic "donut" shaped red blood cell to bend due to an amino acid substitution on the periphery of the hemoglobin protein from a hydrophilic one to a hydrophobic one. Anemia is a broad term and can be a result of multiple causes.

Example Question #7 : Circulatory And Respiratory Systems

What is an aneurysm? 

Possible Answers:

Another term for a heart attack

A clotting disorder

A balloon-like bulge in an artery

Complete rupture of a blood vessel

Correct answer:

A balloon-like bulge in an artery

Explanation:

An aneurysm is a balloon-like bulge in an artery. Often, these occur in the aorta or arteries in the brain. An aneurysm does not necessarily mean the artery has ruptured. Treatments for aneurysms focus on reducing the chances of the vessel rupturing, such as medications to lower blood pressure or surgery to repair the vessel's wall. 

Example Question #144 : Injuries And Disorders

What is atherosclerosis?

Possible Answers:

A heart attack

A disease that only effects only the heart

A disease in which plaque builds up in arteries and they harden

A type of anemia

Correct answer:

A disease in which plaque builds up in arteries and they harden

Explanation:

Atherosclerosis is a disease in which plague begins to form in the arteries, which limits the ability of blood to flow through the area. Also the plaque makes the arterial walls less elastic, which increases blood pressure. Plague can build up in any area of the body, although the pulmonary circuit is much less prone to developing atherosclerotic signs. Atherosclerosis can lead to an increased risk of several health problems, including heart attacks and chronic kidney disease.

Example Question #9 : Circulatory And Respiratory Systems

What disease does Ebola virus cause?

Possible Answers:

Sickle cell disease

Hemorrhagic fever

Severe acute respiratory syndrome

All of these

Correct answer:

Hemorrhagic fever

Explanation:

EBOV is also known as the Ebola virus. It causes a severe hemorrhagic fever that is often fatal in humans and other mammals. EBOV is one of five known viruses within the genus Ebolavirus. 

Example Question #10 : Circulatory And Respiratory Systems

The splenic artery provides blood supply for the spleen, pancreas and stomach. If the splenic artery is compressed by a tumor, which of its branches to the stomach are the most affected?

Possible Answers:

The superior mesenteric artery

The short gastric artery

The right gastroepiploic artery

The left gastroepiploic artery

The inferior mesenteric artery

Correct answer:

The short gastric artery

Explanation:

The splenic artery arise from the celiac trunk and gives off branches to the pancreas and stomach. The gastric branches are short gastric and left gastroepiploic. The left gastroepiploic artery anatomoses with the right gastroepiploic artery (a branch of the gastroduodenal artery) and would not be affected by obstruction of the splenic artery. The short gastric artery has no anastomoses and would likely be affected.The inferior and superior mesenteric arteries are not splenic artery branches.

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