All Human Anatomy and Physiology Resources
Example Question #1 : Help With Thymus And Adrenal Physiology
What is the synthesis site for the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine?
Epinephrine is a tyrosine derivative hormone that is synthesized in the adrenal gland. The adrenal gland has two sections: the cortex and the medulla. While the cortex secretes cortisol, aldosterone, and other glucocorticoids, the medulla secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine.
The testes are associated with testosterone production. The pituitary gland secretes several hormones that regulate numerous processes throughout the body. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is linked to mediation of epinephrine production, but it is the sympathetic nervous system that is responsible for stimulating epinephrine release.
Example Question #2 : Help With Thymus And Adrenal Physiology
Which one of these adrenal gland structures is incorrectly paired with the hormone(s) it secretes?
All of these are correctly paired
The zona glomerulosa secretes mineralocorticoids (aldosterone). All other pairings are correct.
Note that the layers of the adrenal gland, organized from superficial to deep, are the capsule, the zona glomerulosa, the zona fasciculata, the zona reticularis, and the adrenal medulla.
Example Question #3 : Help With Thymus And Adrenal Physiology
The adrenal glands are located just superior to which organ?
The adrenal glands are located above the upper end of each kidney. The adrenal medulla makes up the center of each gland, and produces epinephrine and norepinephrine. The adrenal cortex makes up the outer layer of the gland and produces glucocorticoids, gonadocorticoids, and mineralocorticoids.
Example Question #4 : Help With Thymus And Adrenal Physiology
Within the adrenal glands, where are chromaffin cells located?
Chromaffin cells are found in the adrenal medulla (adrenal glands are located above the kidneys.) Chromaffin cells are regulated by preganglionic sympathetic fibers and release catecholamines, epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) into systemic circulation. The secreted epinephrine and norepinephrine play an important role in the "fight or flight" response elicited by the sympathetic nervous system. The zona glomerulosa is responsible for secreting aldosterone, the zona fasciculata is responsible for secreting cortisol (and a small amount of androgens) and the zona reticularis is primarily responsible for secreting androgens.
Example Question #5 : Help With Thymus And Adrenal Physiology
Which of the following endocrine glands regulate the body's stress response?
The adrenal glands, located superior to the kidneys, are responsible for secreting epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol in order to regulate the body's stress, or "fight-or-flight," response. The thyroid gland secretes thyroid hormones and calcitonin. The pancreas secretes digestive enzymes and hormones that regulate blood sugar. The ovaries and testes secrete sex hormones that regulate sexual development.
Example Question #6 : Help With Thymus And Adrenal Physiology
The adrenal medulla's preganglionic fibers fire directly onto which of the following?
The adrenal medulla is a specialized ganglion of the sympathetic nervous system. The adrenal medulla's preganglionic fibers synapse directly onto chromaffin cells located within the adrenal medulla. This causes the chromaffin cells to secrete epinephrine (80%) and norepinephrine (20%) into the circulation.
A Pheochromocytoma is a tumor of the adrenal medulla that secretes excessive amounts of catecholamines.
Example Question #7 : Help With Thymus And Adrenal Physiology
Mineralocorticoids are produced in the __________ layer of the adrenal cortex and glucocorticoids are produced in the __________ layer of the adrenal cortex.
zona reticularis; zona fasciculata
zona glomerulosa; zona fasciculata
zona glomerulosa; adrenal medulla
zona fasciculata; zona glomerulosa
zona glomerulosa; zona reticularis
zona glomerulosa; zona fasciculata
The three layers of the adrenal cortex are the zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculata, and zona reticularis. The hormones produced in each layer are mineralcorticoids, glucocorticoids, and androgens, respectively.
The common way to help remember the layers of the adrenal cortex from superficial to deep is the acronym "GFR" and the respective hormones produced are "salt, sugar, and sex" hormones. Salt hormones=mineralocorticoids, sugar hormone=glucocorticoids, and sex hormones are the androgens.