Human Anatomy and Physiology : Help with Small Intestine Physiology

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for Human Anatomy and Physiology

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Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Help With Small Intestine Physiology

Which of the following macromolecules requires a carrier protein in order to be moved throughout the body?

Possible Answers:

Proteins

Fats

Carbohydrates

Nucleic acids

Correct answer:

Fats

Explanation:

As macromolecules are absorbed in the small intestine, polar molecules are able to float freely into the bloodstream due to their hydrophilic nature. Nonpolar molecules, such as fats and lipids, require a carrier protein in order to move throughout the body. Fats are carried through the lymphatic system by chylomicrons and are then dumped into the bloodstream through the thoracic duct.

Proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates all contain polar regions that allow them to travel easily within aqueous environments.

Example Question #2 : Help With Small Intestine Physiology

Which section of the small intestine involves the greatest amount of chemical digestion?

Possible Answers:

Jejunum

Cecum

Ileum

Duodenum

Pylorus

Correct answer:

Duodenum

Explanation:

The small intestine is composed of three sections: the duodenum, the jejunum, and the ileum. The duodenum is the first section, and experiences the majority of chemical digestion in the small intestine. The pancreatic duct empties into the section, carrying enzymes to facilitate digestion of carbohydrates, lipids, and fats as well as bicarbonate to neutralize stomach acid. These enzymes break down macromolecules in the duodenum. The jejunum and ileum are largely responsible for absorbing the nutrients digested in the duodenum. The cecum is a region of the large intestine, which is primarily responsible for water absorption. The pylorus is a region of the stomach, and connects the stomach to the small intestine.

Example Question #3 : Help With Small Intestine Physiology

During digestion in the Small Intestines, disaccharides are broken down into monosaccharides.

Which of the following disaccharides is correctly paired with its resulting monosaccharide components after digestion in the small intestines?

Possible Answers:

Maltose is composed of a glucose and a galactose monomer

Lactose is composed of a glucose and a fructose monomer

Sucrose is composed of a fructose and a galactose monomer

Maltose is composed of two glucose monomers

Lactose is composed of a glucose and a maltose monomer

Correct answer:

Maltose is composed of two glucose monomers

Explanation:

Lactose is composed of a galactose monomer and a glucose monomer. The glycosidic bond is a  1-4 linkage.

Sucrose is composed of a glucose monomer and a fructose monomer. The glycosidic bond is an  1-2 linkage.

Maltose is composed of two glucose monomers joined by an  1-6 linkage.

Example Question #4 : Help With Small Intestine Physiology

Which of the following correctly follows the passage of matter through the large intestine?

Possible Answers:

Duodenum, ileum, jejunum

Cecum, ascending colon, hepatic flexure, transverse colon, splenic flexure, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum

Duodenum, jejunum, ileum

Cecum, ascending colon, splenic flexure, transverse colon, hepatic flexure, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum

Cecum, descending colon, hepatic flexure, transverse colon, splenic flexure, ascending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum

Correct answer:

Cecum, ascending colon, hepatic flexure, transverse colon, splenic flexure, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum

Explanation:

Substances from the small intestine enter the large intestine via the ileocecal valve; thus the first place chyme enters the large intestine is the cecum, which is on the lower right side of the abdominal cavity. The large intestine "outlines" the abdominal cavity; thus next is the ascending colon up towards the liver (on the right side of the abdominal cavity) where it turns toward the midline via the hepatic flexure. The transverse colon moves substances from right to left across the abdominal cavity until it reaches the area near the spleen (on the left side of the body), where it turns down via the splenic flexure into the descending colon. Then comes the sigmoid colon towards the rectum. The anus is not part of the large intestine. 

Example Question #5 : Help With Small Intestine Physiology

The small intestine is the location of major nutrient absorption in the body. Which accessory organ helps fat absorption in the small intestine, and how?

Possible Answers:

The stomach, which releases bile to emulsify fats

The large intestine, which releases fiber for digestion

The gallbladder, which releases bile to emulsify fats

The pancreas, which releases pancreatic protease to break down fats

Correct answer:

The gallbladder, which releases bile to emulsify fats

Explanation:

Bile is necessary to emulsify fats. Proteases break down proteins, not fat. Fiber is broken down by bacteria in the large intestine. The stomach does not release bile. Note that the liver synthesizes bile, but it is stored in and released from the gallbladder.

Example Question #6 : Help With Small Intestine Physiology

What does the small intestine do?

Possible Answers:

Receive stomach contents and continues to digest them using enzymes

Produce bile for storage by the gallbladder

Help break down fats 

Form waste by removing water from undigested material

Correct answer:

Receive stomach contents and continues to digest them using enzymes

Explanation:

The small intestine receives stomach contents and continues to digest them by using various enzymes, it also absorbs small nutrient molecules. The large intestine produces waste by removing water from undigested material. The liver produces bile for the gallbladder and also processes and stores nutrients. The gallbladder stores bile and assists in the breakdown of fats in the small intestine. 

Example Question #7 : Help With Small Intestine Physiology

Which of the following is the correct pathway of food traveling through the gastrointestinal tract?

Possible Answers:

Stomach, ileum, duodenum

Duodenum, jejunum, ileum

Ascending colon, cecum, transverse colon, descending colon 

Sigmoid colon, descending colon, transverse colon

Correct answer:

Duodenum, jejunum, ileum

Explanation:

The correct pathway for food to travel through the gastrointestinal tract after ingestion is the following: esophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum.

Example Question #8 : Help With Small Intestine Physiology

The presence of fat and protein in the small intestine stimulates the release of which hormone that acts to decrease gastric emptying.

Possible Answers:

Glucagon

Cholecystokinin (CCK)

Gastrin

Secretin

Motilin

Correct answer:

Cholecystokinin (CCK)

Explanation:

CCK is a gastrointestinal hormone that acts to decrease gastric emptying when stimulated by the presence of fat and protein. This hormone also has a direct effect on the brain centers responsible for hunger to reduce further eating. The majority of other gastrointestinal hormones are stimulated by the presence of fat.

Example Question #9 : Help With Small Intestine Physiology

A patient presents after a car accident. He has damaged his duodenum and has to have surgery to remove the damaged portion (duodenectomy). Which of the following will be observed?

Possible Answers:

Increased calcium levels

Increased glucose levels

Decreased iron levels 

Decreased creatinine levels 

Increased B9 absorption

Correct answer:

Decreased iron levels 

Explanation:

The duodenum is responsible for the absorption of iron and calcium. Without it, individuals will be iron deficient (anemia) and hypocalcemia (soft bones and etc.). B9 and B12 are both absorbed in the small intestine. 

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