Human Anatomy and Physiology : Help with Pancreas, Liver, and Kidney Physiology

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for Human Anatomy and Physiology

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Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Help With Pancreas, Liver, And Kidney Physiology

Which of the following is not a role of insulin?

Possible Answers:

Increases glycogenolysis

Increases cellular uptake of potassium

Increases protein synthesis in muscles

Increases glycogen synthesis and storage

Increases triglyceride storage

Correct answer:

Increases glycogenolysis

Explanation:

Insulin is made in the beta cells of the pancreas in response to ATP from glucose metabolism. Insulin inhibits glucagon release by alpha cells of the pancreas in a negative feedback mechanism to maintain constant blood glucose levels.

Insulin has several anabolic effects, including increased glucose transport in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, increased glycogen synthesis and storage, increased triglyceride storage, increased protein synthesis in muscles, and increased cellular uptake of potassium and amino acids. 

Glycogen is made by pancreatic alpha cells and is secreted in response to hypoglycemia, resulting in glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis to increase circulating blood glucose levels.

Example Question #2 : Help With Pancreas, Liver, And Kidney Physiology

Which of the following is not a function of bile?

Possible Answers:

Emulsification of lipids

Cholesterol excretion

Digestion and absorption of protein

Antimicrobial activity

Transportation and absorption of lipids

Correct answer:

Digestion and absorption of protein

Explanation:

Bile is composed of bile salts, phospholipids, cholesterol, bilirubin, water and ions. Bile functions in the emulsification and absorption of lipids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as cholesterol excretion. Bile also has antimicrobial activity via membrane disruption. In the duodenum, bile will orient hydrophobic regions around a lipid micelle and provide hydrophilic interaction with the surrounding environment. The micelle can then be transported to the lacteals for introduction to the lymphatic system and absorption.

Bile is not involved in protein digestion; this is the function of proteases, such as trypsin.

Example Question #3 : Help With Pancreas, Liver, And Kidney Physiology

Which of the following correctly matches the pancreatic enzyme with its function?

Possible Answers:

Proteases aid in fat digestion

Lipases aid in protein digestion

Trypsin aids in carbohydrate digestion

Amylase aids in starch digestion

Caboxypeptidase aids in carbohydrate digestion

Correct answer:

Amylase aids in starch digestion

Explanation:

Pancreatic amylase is responsible for starch digestion in the duodenum. Salivary amylase also aids in this process, and is introduced early in digestion in the mouth.

Proteases like trypsin are responsible for cleaving proteins. Carboxypeptidase is also involved in specific protein digestion. Lipases are involved in lipid and fat digestion. All of these enzymes are introduced in the duodenum of the small intestine, where the majority of chemical digestion occurs.

Example Question #4 : Help With Pancreas, Liver, And Kidney Physiology

The kidneys can control blood pressure. Select the correct sequence of events resulting from someone becoming dehydrated.

Possible Answers:

The kidneys secret renin, angiotensin is converted to angiotensin II, the adrenal glands secrete aldosterone, aldosterone causes the kidneys to conserve water.

The adrenal glands secrete aldosterone, which converts angiotensinogen in the blood to angiotensin II, angiotensin II causes the kidneys to conserve water

The kidneys secrete renin, which converts angiotensinogen into angiotensin I, the adrenal glands secrete antidiuretic hormone, which causes the kidneys to conserve water

Cells in the kidneys secret renin into the blood stream, renin activates angiotensinogen, angiotensin I is converted to angiotensin II by angiotensin converting enzyme, the adrenal glands secrete aldosterone, aldosterone acts on kidneys to conserve sodium and water

Angiotensin I is converted to angiotensin II by angiotensin converting enzyme, the kidneys secrete renin, the adrenal glands secrete aldosterone, aldosterone causes the kidneys to conserve sodium and water

Correct answer:

Cells in the kidneys secret renin into the blood stream, renin activates angiotensinogen, angiotensin I is converted to angiotensin II by angiotensin converting enzyme, the adrenal glands secrete aldosterone, aldosterone acts on kidneys to conserve sodium and water

Explanation:

The road back to homeostasis starts with cells in the kidneys detecting decreased blood volume. The kidneys then secrete renin. Renin activates angiotensinogen (produced by the liver) in the blood. The renin-activated peptide is called angiotensin I and when it passes through the pulmonary circuit, it is converted to angiotensin II by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). Angiotensin II is a vasoconstrictor and it causes the adrenal glands to secrete aldosterone. Aldosterone acts directly on the kidneys to conserve sodium, which stimulates the release of antidiuretic hormone from the posterior pituitary, and thereby increase the blood volume and pressure.

Example Question #5 : Help With Pancreas, Liver, And Kidney Physiology

Which of the following endocrine glands regulates blood sugar levels?

Possible Answers:

Pancreas

Kidneys

Hypothalamus

Ovaries

Testes

Correct answer:

Pancreas

Explanation:

The pancreas can secrete glucagon or insulin to either increase or decrease blood sugar, respectively, to achieve normal blood glucose levels, which are between . The other glands listed do not secrete hormones that directly affect the blood sugar. Note that cortisol, released from the adrenal cortex, increases blood sugar levels. 

Example Question #6 : Help With Pancreas, Liver, And Kidney Physiology

During dehydration the body has less water than homeostasis calls for. Which of the following hormones is likely released to combat dehydration?

Possible Answers:

Glucagon

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

Calcitonin

Somatostatin

Correct answer:

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

Explanation:

ADH, also known as vasopressin, stimulates water reabsorption in the kidneys. When the body is dehydrated it makes sense to reduce the amount of water it releases. This hormone is released from the posterior pituitary gland, but is made in the hypothalamus.  FSH is involved in reproduction; it stimulates follicle maturation in women and spermatogenesis in males. Glucagon stimulates conversion of glycogen to glucose in the liver and somatostatin suppresses secretion of glucagon and insulin. Calcitonin decreases the blood calcium levels by storing it in bones.

Example Question #62 : Endocrine And Reproductive Physiology

The __________ cells reside in the afferent arteriole walls of the renal glomerulus and release the hormone __________ in response to drops in blood pressure.

Possible Answers:

JG (juxtaglomerular) . . . renin

macula densa . . . renin

JG (juxtaglomerular) . . . erythropoietin

podocytes . . . angiotensin

macula densa . . . aldosterone

Correct answer:

JG (juxtaglomerular) . . . renin

Explanation:

The JG cells are the cells present within the afferent arteriole of the renal glomerulus and have baroreceptors (pressure receptors) that detect changes in blood pressure entering the kidney. When blood pressure is too low, the JG cells release the hormone renin which triggers the RAS response (renin-angiotensin system).

The macula densa are osmoreceptor cells that detect the salt concentration within the renal lumen at the level of the ascending loop of the nephron. These cells are in close proximity to the JG cells to encourage the the JG cells to release renin if the salt concentration within the renal lumen becomes too low.

Aldosterone is a hormone produced by the the glomerulosa layer of the adrenal cortex. This hormone helps with salt reabsorption at the distal convoluted tubule of the kidney.

Erythropoietin is a hormone released by renal fibroblasts that helps to trigger the bone marrow to produce more erythrocytes (red blood cells) in response to anemia.

Example Question #63 : Endocrine And Reproductive Physiology

Hyperbilirubinemia can be subdivided into three main originating factors: pre-hepatic, hepatic, and post-hepatic.

Intravascular hemolysis would cause what specific type of hyperbilirubinemia?

Possible Answers:

Intravascular hemolysis is not a cause for hyperbilirubinemia

Hepatic hyperbilirubinemia

Posthepatic hyperbilirubinemia

Prehepatic hyperbilirubinemia

Intravascular hemolysis causes all three types of hyperbilirubinemia

Correct answer:

Prehepatic hyperbilirubinemia

Explanation:

Intravascular hemolysis is defined as the destruction and lysis of red blood cells in circulation. The lysis of red blood cells causes the release large amounts of hemoglobin which is broken down into unconjugated bilirubin. This large amount of unconjugated bilirubin often saturates the ability for the liver to conjugate the bilirubin, which subsequently leads to hyperbilirubinemia in the patient. Hyperbilirubinemia is clinically manifested as jaundice (yellow discoloration of tissues).

Example Question #64 : Endocrine And Reproductive Physiology

What is the organ that produces and releases insulin?

Possible Answers:

Heart

Kidney 

Pancreas

Thyroid

Correct answer:

Pancreas

Explanation:

The pancreas executes both exocrine and endocrine functions. One particular endocrine function is to release insulin from the beta cells of the pancreatic islets. Insulin functions to lower blood glucose and increase storage of glycogen.

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