Human Anatomy and Physiology : Help with Other Excretory Physiology

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for Human Anatomy and Physiology

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Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Help With Other Excretory Physiology

Why are women more prone to urinary tract infections compared to males?

Possible Answers:

Their levels of estrogen make their immune systems weaker

Women have smaller bladders compared to men

Men have specialized white blood cells in the urethra that women lack

They have shorter urethras than men

Correct answer:

They have shorter urethras than men

Explanation:

Because women have smaller urethras, bacteria and other pathogens have a shorter distance to travel in order to cause infections in the body. In addition, the proximity of the anus to the urethral opening in women is much closer compared to men, resulting in a closer proximity to bacteria.

Example Question #2 : Help With Other Excretory Physiology

Total body water is approximately __________ of body weight.

Possible Answers:

85%

20%

40%

60%

Correct answer:

60%

Explanation:

Total body water is approximately 60% of body weight. The percentage of total body water is highest in newborns and adult males, and lowest in adult females and in adults with large amounts of adipose tissue (fat). Intracellular fluid is 40% of body weight, and extracellular fluid is 20% of body weight (60-40-20 rule).

Example Question #1 : Help With Other Excretory Physiology

What are the major cations of intracellular fluid?

Possible Answers:

 only

Proteins and organic phosphates

 and 

 and 

Correct answer:

 and 

Explanation:

Intracellular fluid (ICF) is two-thirds of total body water. Its major cations are  and . The major anions of ICF are proteins and organic phosphates (ATP, ADP, AMP). Also, most proteins carry a net negative charge at physiological pH. Major cations of extracellular fluid (ECF) are , its anions are  and . Remember that the sodium potassium pump works continuously to pump three sodium ions out of the cell and two potassium ions into the cell, thus concentrating these species in their respective compartments.

Example Question #24 : Excretory Physiology

Extracellular fluid contains which cations and anions?

Possible Answers:

Proteins and organic phosphates

 and 

 and 

Correct answer:

Explanation:

Extracellular fluid (ECF) contains the cation , and  and  as its anions.  ECF is one-third of total body water and is composed of interstitial fluid and plasma. Plasma is one-fourth of the ECF, thus it is one-twelfth of total body water (TBW).

Intracellular fluid (ICF) provides two-thirds of TBW. Its major cations are  and . The major anions of ICF are proteins and organic phosphates (ATP, ADP, AMP). Note that DNA also carries a net negative charge, and is intracellular, but not dissolved.

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