Human Anatomy and Physiology : Help with Neuron Types

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for Human Anatomy and Physiology

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Example Questions

Example Question #17 : Neural Physiology

Which of the following statements is true of a bipolar neuron?

Possible Answers:

It is the most common neuron type in the brain

It only communicates with two other neurons

It has two axons branching off of the neuron body

It has two processes extending off of the neuron's cell body

Correct answer:

It has two processes extending off of the neuron's cell body

Explanation:

There are three possible neural cell structures: unipolar, bipolar, and multipolar. Bipolar neurons have only two extensions coming off of the cell body, typically the dendrite extension and the axon extension. Although there are only two extensions coming off of the neuron, it is still capable of interacting with many other neurons due to subsequent branching beyond the junction with the cell body.

Example Question #18 : Neural Physiology

Which of the following is NOT a property of neurons?

Possible Answers:

Compose the nervous system

Permanent cells

Cells do not divide during adulthood

Undergo reactive gliosis in response to injury

Correct answer:

Undergo reactive gliosis in response to injury

Explanation:

Neurons are the cells that make up the nervous system. Neurons are large, permanent cells that do not divide during adulthood and spend most of their lives in the G0 phase of the cell cycle. If part of a neuron is damaged, it undergoes Wallerian degeneration, meaning that the neuron degenerates distal to the injury, and does not undergo reactive gliosis in response to injury. Astrocytes, a type of glial cell, do this.

Example Question #1 : Help With Neuron Types

Which of the following is not used to organize the structure of a peripheral nerve?

Possible Answers:

Endoneurium

Epineurium

All of these organize the structure of a peripheral nerve

Perineurium

Correct answer:

All of these organize the structure of a peripheral nerve

Explanation:

A peripheral nerve is composed of three layers: the endoneurium (inner layer around a single nerve fiber), perineurium (middle layer that surrounds a fascicle of nerve fibers), and the epineurium (dense outer layer that surrounds an entire nerve).

Example Question #2 : Help With Neuron Types

The knee-jerk reflex could be best categorized as which of the following?

Possible Answers:

Multisynaptic reflex

Post-synaptic reflex

Monosynaptic reflex

Polysynaptic reflex

Pre-synaptic reflex

Correct answer:

Monosynaptic reflex

Explanation:

Monosynaptic reflexes means that the afferent neuron directly stimulates an efferent neuron, which directly stimulates a muscle to contract. This means that the information never interfaces with the brain to process. The knee-jerk reflex is known as a monosynaptic reflex because only one neural synapse is involved in the reaction.

Example Question #3 : Help With Neuron Types

Neurons can vary in shape, size, and function. Which of the following is not an example of the unique shapes neurons can take?

Possible Answers:

Hyperpolar

Unipolar

Multipolar

Bipolar

Correct answer:

Hyperpolar

Explanation:

Bipolar neurons have 1 dendrite and 1 axon. Unipolar neurons have 1 extension, which splits into 1 dendrite and 1 axon. Multipolar neurons have many dendrites and 1 axon. Sensory neurons are neurons within the neural system that specifically work within the sensory system.

Example Question #4 : Help With Neuron Types

What is the function of microglial cells?

Possible Answers:

Produce myelin

Protective lining

Phagocytosis

Support

Correct answer:

Phagocytosis

Explanation:

Microglial cells are a macrophage of the brain and spinal cord. They function in phagocytosis, making them an immune defense of the central nervous system (CNS). Micorglia make up approximately 10-15% of all cells found in the brain.

Astrocytes, named for their star shape, provide protection and support. They provide support to the endothelial cells of the blood brain barrier, help maintain ion balances in the CNS, and aid in repair and healing of the CNS after injuries (specifically making scar tissue).

Ependymal cells line the cerebrospinal fluid filled ventricles of the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord.

Lastly myelin is produced by oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells.

Example Question #22 : Neural Physiology

What is the function of astrocytes?

Possible Answers:

Protective lining

Protection and support

Production of myelin

Phagocytosis

Correct answer:

Protection and support

Explanation:

Astrocytes, named for their star shape, provide protection and support. They provide support to endothelial cells of the blood brain barrier, help maintain ion balances in the CNS, and aid in repair and healing of the CNS after injuries (specifically in forming scar tissue).

Microglial cells are a macrophage of the brain and spinal cord. Their function is phagocytosis, making them an immune defense of the central nervous system (CNS). Micorglia make up approximately 10-15% of all cells found in the brain.

Ependymal cells line the cerebrospinal fluid filled ventricles of the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord. Lastly, myelin is produced by oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells.

Example Question #4 : Help With Neuron Types

Which of the following nerves or parts of nerves carries sensory information only?

Possible Answers:

Ventral root of spinal nerve

Gray ramus communicans

Ventral ramus of spinal nerve

Dorsal root of spinal nerve

Correct answer:

Dorsal root of spinal nerve

Explanation:

The dorsal root transmits sensory information only and is thus responsible for the afferent sensory root of a spinal nerve. The dorsal root of spinal nerves emerge from the posterior side of the spinal cord and joins with the ventral root to form a mixed spinal nerve. The ventral root comes from the anterior side of the spinal nerve and is the efferent motor root of a spinal nerve. 

Example Question #24 : Neural Physiology

The ventral rootlets and root of the T5 spinal nerve carry which of the following?

Possible Answers:

Motor nerve fibers only

Parasympathetic motor nerve fibers only

Motor and sensory nerve fibers

Sensory nerve fibers only

Correct answer:

Motor nerve fibers only

Explanation:

The ventral root comes from the anterior side of the spinal nerve and is the efferent motor root of a spinal nerve. The ventral root of spinal nerves emerge from the anterior side of the spinal cord and joins with the dorsal root to form a mixed spinal nerve. The dorsal root transmits sensory information only and is thus responsible for the afferent sensory root of a spinal nerve.

 
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