Human Anatomy and Physiology : Help with Kidney Physiology

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for Human Anatomy and Physiology

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Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Help With Kidney Physiology

Which of the following is not considered to be a function of the kidney?

Possible Answers:

Stimulation of red blood cell production

Thermoregulation

Maintaining fluid levels in the body

Conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin I

Regulation of blood osmolarity

Correct answer:

Thermoregulation

Explanation:

The human kidney has many functions, all of which are important for sustaining life.  The kidney controls blood osmolarity by filtering, reabsorbing, and secreting various ions found throughout the body.  The kidney controls fluid volume in the body by this same mechanism.  Additionally, the kidney produces erythropoietin and renin which stimulate the production of red blood cells and convert angiotensinogen to angiotensin I, respectively. 

Example Question #2 : Help With Kidney Physiology

Which of the following is the outermost layer of the kidney?

Possible Answers:

Renal cortex

Renal pyramid

Renal capsule

Renal medulla

Renal sinus

Correct answer:

Renal capsule

Explanation:

The renal capsule is the outermost structure of the kidney.  It is the fibrous connective tissue kidney structure that directly surrounds the renal cortex, and is surrounded by a layer of adipose tissue that protects the kidney from trauma.  The renal pyramids, renal sinus, and renal medulla are located deep within the kidney.

Example Question #3 : Help With Kidney Physiology

Which of the following kidney structures is the connection point between the bladder and the kidney itself?

Possible Answers:

Urethra

Collecting duct

Ureter

Renal pelvis

Renal medulla

Correct answer:

Ureter

Explanation:

The urine made within the kidney drains out from the renal pelvis and down the ureter to ultimately be stored in the bladder.

Example Question #4 : Help With Kidney Physiology

A patient presents with severe diarrhea and his test results show a significant loss of .  It is likely that the physician will diagnose the patient with:

Possible Answers:

Respiratory acidosis

Metabolic acidosis

Cystic fibrosis

Metabolic alkalosis

Respiratory alkalosis

Correct answer:

Metabolic acidosis

Explanation:

A very large loss of  from the patient will lead to a drastic decrease in pH.  Therefore, all alkalosis disorders can be ruled out.  Additionally, because the pH decrease is unrelated to an increase in carbon dioxide, it is not a respiratory issue - leaving only metabolic acidosis as a diagnosis.  Cystic fibrosis involves the overproduction of thick mucous, which causes severe respiratory pathology; other systems are affected too, but excess bicarbonate secretion is not associated with this genetic disease.

Example Question #5 : Help With Kidney Physiology

Obstruction in the ureters will have what effect on the glomerular filtration rate (GFR)?

Possible Answers:

GFR increases to 

Increased GFR

Unchanged GFR

Decreased GFR

None of the other answers

Correct answer:

Decreased GFR

Explanation:

Obstruction bilaterally in the ureters leads to decreased GFR due to increased pressure retrograde from the ureters. Bowman space pressure increases to override the GFR pressure. Bowman space pressure does not favor filtration versus GFR pressure (favors filtration). 

Example Question #6 : Help With Kidney Physiology

Which of the following is the best estimate for serum osmolality?

Possible Answers:

Correct answer:

Explanation:

Serum osmolality is best estimated at around 

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