Human Anatomy and Physiology : Help with Immune System Injuries and Disorders

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for Human Anatomy and Physiology

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Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Help With Immune System Injuries And Disorders

Which of the following is a sign of inflammation?

Possible Answers:

Ataxia

Impaired vision

Calor

Dizziness

Correct answer:

Calor

Explanation:

Calor—or redness—is associated with increased blood flow, which can result from inflammation. During an inflammation response, histamine release results in vasodilation and increased bloodflow, which can cause the infalmmed area to appear red.

Example Question #2 : Immune System

What type of microbiota infect individuals who are already immunocompromised?

Possible Answers:

Pathogens

Opportunistic microbiota

Transient microbiota

Resident microbiota

Correct answer:

Opportunistic microbiota

Explanation:

Opportunistic microbiota can form biofilms and affect patients who are immunocompromised, suchs as someone with AIDS or a chronic illness.

Resident microbiota are always present in the body and frequently have mutualistic relationships with their human hosts. Transient microbiota are present at some times, but absent at others. Pathogens affect healthy individuals, as well as those who may be immunocompromised.

Example Question #2 : Help With Immune System Injuries And Disorders

Which of the following does not release histamine?

Possible Answers:

Platelet

Basophil

Mast cell

Neutrophil

Correct answer:

Neutrophil

Explanation:

Mast cells are perhaps the best-known producers of histamine. Basophils also release histamine and contribute to the inflammatory response, while platelets are also capable of releasing histamine. Neutrophils are best-known for their phagocytic properties, and do not produce histamine.

Example Question #2 : Help With Immune System Injuries And Disorders

Which of the following causes edema during inflammation?

Possible Answers:

Increased oncotic pressure in the venules

Increased hydrostatic pressure in the arterioles

Decreased hydrostatic pressure in the venules

Increased oncotic pressure in the arterioles

Correct answer:

Increased hydrostatic pressure in the arterioles

Explanation:

There are two primary types of pressure: hydrostatic pressure is the result of fluid volume pressing on a physical boundary, while oncotic pressure is the pulling force of protein concentrations causing watter diffuse across a membrane. During an inflammation response, fluid is allowed to leak out of arterioles and capillaries resulting in increased hydrostatic pressure in the interstitium. Edema is the accumulation of fluid in the interstitium.

All the other answers cause fluid to return to the vessel, rather than exit it.

Example Question #3 : Help With Immune System Injuries And Disorders

Which of the following do NSAIDS effect?

Possible Answers:

Lipoxygenase

Phospholipase C

COX-1 

Leukotriene

Correct answer:

COX-1 

Explanation:

NSAIDs inhibit COX-1, inhibiting the formation of prostanglandins.

Example Question #4 : Help With Immune System Injuries And Disorders

What is sarcoidosis?

Possible Answers:

A form of cancer

A digestive disorder that leads to irritable bowels

Another term for tuberculosis

A disorder of the immune system cells that cause inflammation which leads to the formation of granulomas

Correct answer:

A disorder of the immune system cells that cause inflammation which leads to the formation of granulomas

Explanation:

Sarcoidosis is a disease of unknown cause that leads to inflammation. The immune cells that cause inflammation do not dissipate and instead, create clusters called granulomas. Not all cases of sarcoidosis require treatment.

Example Question #5 : Help With Immune System Injuries And Disorders

What is the difference between MRSA and other Staphylococcus infections?

Possible Answers:

MRSA is easier to treat

Other Staphylococcus infections are more serious

They are the same thing

MRSA is antibiotic resistant

Correct answer:

MRSA is antibiotic resistant

Explanation:

MRSA stands for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. It is often seen in hospitals or long term care facilities. It can be treated using other antibiotics or is sometimes drained and left to heal without other intervention. 

Example Question #5 : Help With Immune System Injuries And Disorders

What are some of the symptoms of African sleeping sickness?

Possible Answers:

Wet cough, excessive mucous secretion from nose and eyes, and headache

Irritability, insomnia, uncontrollable bleeding

Fever, severe headache, irritability, extreme fatigue, swollen lymph nodes, and aching muscles

Severe fever, hacking cough, and blood in stools

Correct answer:

Fever, severe headache, irritability, extreme fatigue, swollen lymph nodes, and aching muscles

Explanation:

African Sleeping Sickness, caused by a parasite spread by the Tsetse Fly, has several symptoms that appear about 1-3 weeks after being bitten by the fly. The most common symptoms are fevers, extreme fatigue, muscle aches, irritability, swollen lymph nodes, and severe headaches. 

Example Question #6 : Help With Immune System Injuries And Disorders

What insect carries the parasite responsible for African sleeping sickness?

Possible Answers:

Mosquito

Botfly

Tsetse fly

Lone star tick

Correct answer:

Tsetse fly

Explanation:

Africa sleeping sickness, also known as African trypanosomosis, is caused by a parasite. The parasite, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, is carried by the Tsetse fly. The fly bite is the mechanism for the parasite entering the body. There are two variations of sleeping sickness, East African and West African. 

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