Human Anatomy and Physiology : Help with Hormone Origins and Targets

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for Human Anatomy and Physiology

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Example Questions

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Example Question #7 : Endocrine And Reproductive Physiology

Which of the following allows peptide hormones to initiate their effect on target cells?

Possible Answers:

They attach to carrier proteins in the bloodstream

They attach to the DNA in the nucleus

They attach to receptors in the cytosol

They attach to membrane receptors on the target cell

Correct answer:

They attach to membrane receptors on the target cell

Explanation:

Peptide hormones are large polar hormones that are able to freely float in the bloodstream. Once they reach their target cells, peptide hormones attach to transmembrane receptors on the target cell. This generally initiates a second messenger signal cascade to amplify the response, eventually driving a change in genetic expression and transcription.

In contrast, steroid hormones are small and nonpolar. These characteristics allow them to freely diffuse across the plasma membrane of the cell and enter the nucleus, where they can directly act as transcription factors to regulate genetic expression.

Example Question #8 : Endocrine And Reproductive Physiology

Hypersecretion of the growth hormone during adulthood results in which of the following?

Possible Answers:

Gigantism, where the individual develops normal body and facial proportions in relation to his or her size

Dwarfism, where the individual develops normal body and facial proportions in relation to his or her size

Acromegaly, where the individual develops abnormal body and facial proportions in relation to his or her size

Acromegaly, where the individual develops normal body and facial proportions in relation to his or her size

Gigantism, where the individual develops abnormal body and facial proportions in relation to his or her size

Correct answer:

Acromegaly, where the individual develops abnormal body and facial proportions in relation to his or her size

Explanation:

Hypersecretion, or oversecretion, of the growth hormone in adulthood results in a condition called acromegaly. The adult individual no longer has growth plates at this point, so the excess hormones interact with the receptors on the surface of bones. This results in coarse facial features, thickening of the dermis, and large hands and feet. 

Gigantism is also a result from hypersecretion of the growth hormone, but it occurs during childhood when the individual still has his or her growth plates. Dwarfism is a result from hyposecretion, or undersecretion, of the growth hormone. 

Example Question #2 : Endocrine Physiology

What is the primary target for gastrin?

Possible Answers:

Gastrointestinal tract and pancreas

Gonads

Bone

Kidneys

Correct answer:

Gastrointestinal tract and pancreas

Explanation:

Gastrin is a hormone secreted by the stomach and small intestine that acts on the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. Many hormones, such as vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone) and aldosterone act on the kidneys. Hormones that target bone are calcitonin and parathyroid hormone. Hormones that target gonads include follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. 

Example Question #3 : Hormone Physiology

What hormone does the heart secrete?

Possible Answers:

Oxytocin

Androgens

Thymosin

Atrial natriuretic peptide

Correct answer:

Atrial natriuretic peptide

Explanation:

The heart secretes atrial natriuretic peptide, which acts on the kidneys. Oxytocin is secreted by the posterior pituitary. Thymosin is secreted by the thymus gland. Androgens are secreted by the adrenal cortex. 

Example Question #1 : Help With Hormone Origins And Targets

What hormones, secreted by the adrenal medulla, facilitate the fight or flight response?

Possible Answers:

Gastrin and secretin

Epinephrine and norepinephrine

Triiodothyronine and thyroxine

Estrogen and progesterone

Correct answer:

Epinephrine and norepinephrine

Explanation:

The adrenal medulla produces epinephrine and norepinephrine, which cause the fight or flight response. The thyroid gland produces triiodothryonine and thyroxine, which are used for metabolism, growth, and development. The ovaries and placenta produce estrogen and progesterone, which are used for fetal/maternal development and egg production. Lastly, the stomach and small intestines produce gastrin and secretin, which are used to assist digestion and nutrient absorption.

Example Question #2 : Help With Hormone Origins And Targets

What hormones do adipose tissue secrete?

Possible Answers:

Estrogen and progesterone

Epinephrine and norepinephrine

Thymosin and thymopoietin

Leptin, adiponectin, and resistin

Correct answer:

Leptin, adiponectin, and resistin

Explanation:

Adipose tissue secretes leptin, adiponectin, and resistin which affect food intake, metabolism, and reproduction. The thymus gland is responsible for secreting thymosin and thymopietin. Ovaries and the placenta secrete estrogen and progesterone. The adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine. 

Example Question #3 : Help With Hormone Origins And Targets

What are the functions of the hormones secreted by the alpha and beta cells of the pancreas?

Possible Answers:

Release or inhibit pituitary hormones

Egg or sperm production

Metabolize glucose and other nutrients

Regulates plasma calcium and phosphate levels 

Correct answer:

Metabolize glucose and other nutrients

Explanation:

The hormones secreted by the alpha and beta cells of the pancreas are glucagon and insulin, respectively. These hormones are associated with the metabolism glucose. Glucagon increases blood glucose levels, while insulin does the opposite. Follicle-stimulating hormone is responsible for egg or sperm development. Tropic hormones from the hypothalamus are what release or inhibit pituitary hormones. Lastly, thymosin and thymopoietin are what regulate blood calcium and phosphate levels. 

Example Question #4 : Help With Hormone Origins And Targets

What hormone, released by the liver, increases blood pressure?

Possible Answers:

Vitamin D3

Oxytocin

Cortisol

Angiotensinogen

Correct answer:

Angiotensinogen

Explanation:

The liver secretes angiotensinogen and insulin-like growth factors. Only angiotensinogen is responsible for increasing blood pressure by acting on blood vessels. Cortisol is released by the adrenal cortex, oxytocin is released by the posterior pituitary, and vitamin D3 is found being activated in the skin. Angiotensinogen is a zymogen that is converted into angiotensin I by renin (secreted by the kidney). Then angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) converts angiotensin I into angiotensin II, which is a potent vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II also promotes the release of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex, which increases sodium reabsorption. Lastly, antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is released from the posterior pituitary to act on the distal convoluted tubule and the collecting duct to increase the permeability of water via upregulation of aquaporins. Together, these hormones act to increase blood pressure.

Example Question #5 : Help With Hormone Origins And Targets

Which of the following hormones are secreted by the adrenal cortex?

Possible Answers:

Epinephrine

Insulin

Erythropoietin

Androgens

Correct answer:

Androgens

Explanation:

The adrenal cortex secretes androgens, cortisol, and aldosterone. The adrenal medulla is what secretes epinephrine. The kidney secretes erythropoietin. Lastly, the pancreas is what secretes insulin. 

Example Question #6 : Help With Hormone Origins And Targets

The secretion of hormones of the anterior pituitary are stimulated or inhibited by hormones secreted from the __________

Possible Answers:

Thyroid

Posterior pituitary

Adrenal medulla 

Hypothalamus 

Parathyroid 

Correct answer:

Hypothalamus 

Explanation:

The secretion of hormones of the anterior pituitary is stimulated or inhibited by releasing and/or inhibiting factors released from the hypothalamus into the hypophyseal portal system. 

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