Human Anatomy and Physiology : Help with Heart Injuries and Disorders

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for Human Anatomy and Physiology

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Example Question #1 : Help With Heart Injuries And Disorders

A 22-year old male was brought to the shock trauma bay after sustaining a gunshot to the chest. His blood pressure on arrival was 78/36 with a pulse of 78 and two large-bore IVs were inserted to begin fluid resuscitation. He is unresponsive with decreased breath sounds and is immediately intubated. He is not a heavy man, but his heart sounds are muffled and you note distention of his jugular veins. Ultrasound does not reveal any fluid collections in the abdomen, but does reveal fluid in the pericardium. After a liter of fluid is given, his pressure is now 50 systolic by palpation and pulse is 52. What is your diagnosis?

Possible Answers:

Cardiac tamponade

Splenic laceration

Acute myocardial infarction

Tension pneumothorax

Pelvic fracture

Correct answer:

Cardiac tamponade

Explanation:

This man is deteriorating from cardiac tamponade, a condition in which blood is pooling around the heart and hindering its ability to fill during diastole (relaxation).

Doctors should suspect cardiac tamponade when a patient has hypotension, muffled heart sounds, and jugular venous distention (Beck's triad). Ultrasound will show a fluid collection in the pericardial sac surrounding the heart. Treatment is with immediate pericardiocentesis and fluid resuscitation.

Tension pneumothorax occurs when damage to the lung results in leakage of air into the pleural space. This causes equilibration of pressures between the lung and pleural space, leading to difficulty during inhalation. Positive pressure ventilation can help alleviate this condition. A splenic laceration will result in internal bleeding in the upper left quadrant of the abdomen. Pelvic fractures generally result from trauma during a fall or lateral impact and may cause damage to pelvic organs, but would not likely be linked to cardiac abnormalities. Acute myocardial infarction, or heart attack, occurs from blockage of or damage to the coronary arteries, resulting in a loss of blood flow to the tissues of the heart.

Example Question #2 : Help With Heart Injuries And Disorders

Besides the sinoatrial node, which of the following cardiac structures has the fastest rate of spontaneous depolarization? 

Possible Answers:

Ventricular myocytes

Atrioventricular node

Purkinje fibers

Bachman's bundle

Bundle of His

Correct answer:

Atrioventricular node

Explanation:

If the sinoatrial node becomes damaged and is unable to drive the rate of spontaneous depolarization in the heart (at its normal rate of 60-100 beats per minute), other cardiac pacemaker cells exist to ensure that the heart continues beating. The atrioventricular node is also known as the secondary pacemaker because these cells spontaneously discharge at a rate of 40-60 beats per minute. It is worth noting that if both the sinoatrial and atrioventricular nodes are damaged, the bundle branches, and Purkinje fibers are also capable of producing a spontaneous action potential at a rate of 30-40 beats per minute.

Example Question #3 : Help With Heart Injuries And Disorders

Aortic valve replacement is necessary if the valve becomes leaky, which is also known as __________.

Possible Answers:

pulmonary embolism

aortic regurgitation

pulmonary hypertension

aortic stenosis

Correct answer:

aortic regurgitation

Explanation:

Aortic regurgitation is the term for leaky, insufficient valves. Aortic regurgitation can be repaired via a valve replacement procedure. Aortic stenosis is hardening of the arteries. Pulmonary embolisms is a blockage in one of the pulmonary arteries. Hypertension is also known as high blood pressure.

Example Question #4 : Help With Heart Injuries And Disorders

When this protein is found in the blood, it can be indicative of a myocardial infarction.

Possible Answers:

Elastin 

Myosin 

Troponin 

Hemoglobin 

Keratin 

Correct answer:

Troponin 

Explanation:

Troponin is a complex of proteins that play an important role in skeletal and cardiac muscle contraction. Troponin is released into the bloodstream when there is damage to the heart. This is a common diagnostic laboratory test for patients with heart problems or chest pain. 

Example Question #5 : Help With Heart Injuries And Disorders

What condition is caused when the heart demands more oxygen than the coronary circulation is able to supply? 

Possible Answers:

Myocardial ischemia 

Premature ventricular contraction 

Congestive heart failure 

Coronary artery disease 

Atrial fibrillation 

Correct answer:

Myocardial ischemia 

Explanation:

Myocardial ischemia occurs when the heart demands more oxygen than the coronary arteries can supply. Ischemia means lack of blood. The ability for the coronary circulation to deliver oxygen may be reduced due to the formation of a blood clot, embolism, or atherosclerosis. Premature ventricular contraction and atrial fibrillation are irregular heart beats that can result in arrhythmias and, in some cases more serious complications. Coronary artery disease involves damage (usually via plaque deposition) to the arteries that supply the heart muscle. Congestive heart failure involves any one or more issues with the strength of the heart muscle.

Example Question #18 : Circulatory And Respiratory Systems

A person suffering from mitral valve regurgitation is likely to have blood flowing back into which chamber of the heart?

Possible Answers:

Left ventricle

Left atrium

Right atrium

Right ventricle

Right auricle

Correct answer:

Left atrium

Explanation:

The heart has four chambers divided into left and right sides. The mitral valve is located between the left atrium and right ventricle. The path of blood is from the pulmonary veins to the left atrium, and then to left ventricle finally leaving through the aorta and the rest of the body. If the mitral valve is malfunctioning by not closing fully, blood could only flow back into the left atrium as the mitral valve separates the left atrium and left ventricle. Note that the mitral valve is also known as the left atrioventricular valve, and the bicuspid valve.

Example Question #6 : Help With Heart Injuries And Disorders

What is a heart murmur?

Possible Answers:

An extra or unusual sound during a heartbeat

A defect caused by trauma to the chest cavity

A silent heart attack

A speech disorder that causes someone to murmur

Correct answer:

An extra or unusual sound during a heartbeat

Explanation:

A heart murmur is an extra or unusual sound heard during a heartbeat. It can be harmless or abnormal. A heart murmur is most often caused by heart valve disease and does not necessarily require treatment.

Example Question #7 : Help With Heart Injuries And Disorders

What is endocarditis?

Possible Answers:

An infection of the membrane lining the lungs and chest cavity

An infection of the sinus cavities

An infection of the inner lining of the heart chambers and valves

An infection of the liver

Correct answer:

An infection of the inner lining of the heart chambers and valves

Explanation:

Endocarditis is an infection of the inner heart chambers and valves. It can also be used to describe an inflammation of the endocardium due to other problems. It is treated with antibiotics and can require surgery to remove or repair infected tissue.

Example Question #8 : Help With Heart Injuries And Disorders

During a myocardial infarction (heart attack) a person may express crushing chest pain or pain shooting down their arm. If a person does express pain going down their arm, what is this called?

Possible Answers:

Phantom limb pain

Dislocation

Radiation

Impingement 

Fracture

Correct answer:

Radiation

Explanation:

Radiation is the correct answer because it describes the process by which pain from one area is transmitted to another. In this case it is because the heart's afferent nerve entry into the spinal cord is shared with the dermatomal sensory nerves of T1-T5. In particular T5 is located on the medial aspect of the upper arm (stopping at the elbow). Dislocation is when a joint becomes dislodge from its proper placement. Impingement occurs when a nerve or vessel (artery/vein) becomes compressed, typically related to an injury and causes pain. Fracture is the breaking of a bone. Phantom limb pain is felt by amputees in an amputated limb.

Example Question #22 : Circulatory And Respiratory Systems

A patent ductus arteriosus translates into which type of shunt within the cardiac blood circuit?

Possible Answers:

Right to left shunt

Top to bottom shunt

Bottom to top shunt

Does not result in a shunt

Left to right shunt

Correct answer:

Left to right shunt

Explanation:

A patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a type of abnormal connection between the aorta and pulmonary artery. The ductus arteriosus is a normal vessel that is open during the fetal stage, but should close during birth. If the vessel remains open despite the pressure changes at birth, a left to right shunt occurs. It is termed a left to right shunt because blood will flow from the "left side of the heart" to the "right side of the heart" through the PDA. Blood through the heart flows from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure. Because the aorta (left side of the heart) has higher pressure than the connected pulmonary artery (right side of the heart), blood tends to flow from the aorta to the pulmonary artery via a left-to-right shunt through the PDA.

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