Human Anatomy and Physiology : Help with General Bone and Joint Structures

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for Human Anatomy and Physiology

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Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Help With General Bone And Joint Structures

What type of bone cells secrete osteoid and synthesize bone?

Possible Answers:

Osteocytes

Osteoblasts

Osteoclasts

Hydroxyapatite

Correct answer:

Osteoblasts

Explanation:

Osteoblasts are differentiated non-dividing cells that secrete osteoid, an organic matrix material, that becomes mineralized forming bone. These are the cells primarily responsible for building bone.

Osteocytes are osteoblasts that become trapped in lacunae by bony matrix. These cells still maintain the bone environment, but do not actively build or modify bone a significant amount.

Osteoclasts resorb bone by breaking down the crystalline matrix.

Deposition of the calcium phosphate salt hydroxyapatite leads to mineralization of the bony matrix. 

Example Question #2 : Help With General Bone And Joint Structures

Which of the following is NOT an example of a synarthrosis? 

Possible Answers:

Symphysis

Syndesmosis

Synostosis

Diarthrosis

Correct answer:

Diarthrosis

Explanation:

A synarthrosis is a type of joint that permits little or no movement. Syndesmoses, synostoses, and symphyses are all examples of synarthroses. Syndesmoses are joined by an interosseous ligament. Joints between carpals and tarsals are mostly syndesmoses. Synostoses is a joint formed from the fusion of two bones, generally in an atypical fashion. Symphyses can be synarthroses or amphiarthorses and are characterized by a fibrocartilage band between bones, such as in the pubic symphysis.

A diarthrosis, also known as a synovial joint, is the most common joint type in humans and allows free bone movement. The knee and elbow are examples of a diarthroses or synovial joints.

Example Question #3 : Help With General Bone And Joint Structures

Which of the following cannot be used to describe a joint?

Possible Answers:

Saddle

Syndesmoses

Swinging

Synovial

Correct answer:

Swinging

Explanation:

The joints, or articulations, of the body can be classified according to several different criteria. They can be named for their structure, type of motion, or range of motion.

Synovial joints are determined by the joint structure. All synovial joints are housed within a joint capsule and contain synovial fluid. Joints between long bones are almost always synovial joints.

Syndesmoses are defined by their range of motion, and have very small, if any, motility. Syndesmoses are joined by interosseous ligaments, such as those between the carpals of the wrist.

Saddle joints are defined the type of motion allowed at the joint. Saddle joints are biaxial, allowing flexion, extension, adduction, and abduction, but no axial rotation. The pollical (thumb) joint is a saddle joint. While a "swinging joint" would seem to indicate a joint defined by its type of motion, no such joint exists in anatomical terms.

Example Question #4 : Help With General Bone And Joint Structures

What is the name of the concentric rings formed by osteoblasts in bone tissue?

Possible Answers:

Lamellae

Canaliculi

Trabeculae

Epiphyses

Lacunae

Correct answer:

Lamellae

Explanation:

Osteoblasts will lay down bone matrix around previously formed bone tissue. This forms concentric rings of bone tissue referred to as lamellae.

Lacunae are small gaps in the hydroxyapatite matrix that house the osteocytes. Trabeculae are thin bony structures that span and branch within the region of spongy bone. Canaliculi are small channels between lacunae that allow for cellular nourishment and communication. The epiphyses are the ends of the bone (as opposed to the diaphysis, or bone shaft).

Example Question #5 : Help With General Bone And Joint Structures

What is the medullary cavity?

Possible Answers:

Dense outer layer of bone

The marrow cavity

Shaft of a long bone

The end of a long bone

Correct answer:

The marrow cavity

Explanation:

The medullary cavity is the bone marrow cavity contains red and/or yellow bone marrow; red bone marrow is the site of hematopoiesis. The end of a long bone is known as the epiphysis. Compact bone (cortical bone) is the dense outer layer of bone. The diaphysis is the shaft of a long bone.

Example Question #6 : Help With General Bone And Joint Structures

In long bones, which of the following areas has the greatest metabolic activity during growth?

Possible Answers:

Diaphysis

Epiphysis 

Apophysis

Metaphysis

Periosteum 

Correct answer:

Metaphysis

Explanation:

Metaphysis: has the greatest metabolic activity, and contains the epiphyseal plate, which is replaced by the epiphyseal line

Diaphysis: mechanical support, site of bone marrow and muscle attachments

Apophysis: functions as a site for attachments of ligaments and tendons

Epiphysis: at the end of long bones

Periosteum: covers the diaphysis and parts of metaphysis. 

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