Human Anatomy and Physiology : Help with Female Physiology

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for Human Anatomy and Physiology

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Example Questions

Example Question #76 : Systems Physiology

The luteal surge is caused by which effect in the body?

Possible Answers:

A dramatic increase in progesterone

A dramatic decrease in estradiol

The development of the corpus albicans

A dramatic increase in estradiol

Correct answer:

A dramatic increase in estradiol

Explanation:

Estradiol levels in the body are typically controlled with a negative feedback loop; however, the luteal surge results in a positive feedback loop for estradiol. Instead of luteinizing hormone levels decreasing under high estradiol levels, they increase. As a result, estradiol levels continue to rise. This dramatic increase of estradiol and luteinizing hormone is called the luteal surge, and results in ovulation. 

The corpus albicans develops from the corpus luteum only after ovulation, and is responsible for regulating progesterone levels after the egg has been released.

Example Question #77 : Systems Physiology

A spike in the concentration of which of the following hormones stimulates ovulation in females?

Possible Answers:

Luteinizing hormone

Follicle-stimulating hormone

Progesterone

Testosterone

Estrogen

Correct answer:

Luteinizing hormone

Explanation:

A spike in the concentration of luteinizing hormone (LH) leads to ovulation on day 14 of the menstrual cycle. This spike is known as the "LH surge" and is initiated by a positive feedback mechanism involving estrogen.

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is involved in the maturation of the follicle, but not ovulation. Progesterone functions in maintaining the endometrial tissue after implantation has occurred. Testosterone is not involved in the female reproductive cycle.

Example Question #78 : Systems Physiology

The process of ovulation is controlled by the hypothalamus of the brain through the relase of hormones secreted by the pituitary gland.  

Which of the following endocrine surges triggers ovulation?

Possible Answers:

Estrogen

Luteinizing hormone only

Luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone

Follicle-stimulating hormone only

Progesterone 

Correct answer:

Luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone

Explanation:

Estrogen levels peak towards the end of the follicular phase. This causes a surge in the levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). This lasts about 24-36 hours, and results in the rupture of the ovarian follicles, causing the oocyte to be released from the ovary and swept into the fallopian tubes by the fimbriae.

Example Question #79 : Systems Physiology

What connects each ovary to the uterus?

Possible Answers:

Ovum

Oviduct

Vagina

Urethra

Vulva

Correct answer:

Oviduct

Explanation:

The oviducts, also known as the fallopian tubes, connect the ovaries to the uterus. When an egg, or ovum, is released once each month, it leaves the ovary and flows down the oviduct into the uterus, awaiting fertilization. If fertilization does not occur, then the uterine lining is shed, taking with it the egg, through the uterus and out the vagina. The urethra is connected to the urinary bladder. 

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