Human Anatomy and Physiology : Help with Endocrine Injuries and Disorders

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for Human Anatomy and Physiology

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Example Question #1 : Help With Endocrine Injuries And Disorders

Cushing's disease is caused by which of the following?

Possible Answers:

Excess of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

Excess of growth hormone (GH)

Excess of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

Deficiency in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

Deficiency in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

Correct answer:

Excess of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

Explanation:

Hormone imbalances can result in numerous diseases and disorders.

Excess adrenocorticotropic hormone can result in Cushing's disease, characterized by excess weight, fatigue, and redness and roundness in the facial features.

A deficiency in adrenocorticotropic hormone can result in Addison's disease, characterized by low blood pressure and hyperpigmentation.

Excess growth hormone can have different results, depending on the age at which the imbalance occurs. Gigantism results when there is an excess of GH during childhoos, while acromegaly results during adulthood.

Excess thyroid-stimulating hormone can result in Grave's disease, which has many symptoms similar to hyperthyroidism. Such symptoms include weight loss and hyperactivity. Grave's disease can also produce goiters.

A deficiency in thyroid-stimulating hormone can have different results, depending on the age at which the imbalance occurs. Cretinism, myxedema, and Hashimoto's disease are all caused by TSH dificiency.

Example Question #2 : Help With Endocrine Injuries And Disorders

What is a goiter? 

Possible Answers:

Abnormal decrease in size of hypothalamus 

Abnormal increase in size of hypothalamus 

Abnormal increase in size of the thyroid gland 

Atrophy of thyroid gland 

Abnormal decrease in size of thyroid gland 

Correct answer:

Abnormal increase in size of the thyroid gland 

Explanation:

An abnormal increase in the size of the thyroid gland is called a goiter. A goiter can be caused by too little secretion of thyroid hormone, or from hyperthyroidism. Depending on the stage, goiters can be undetectable to the eye, or quite obvious.

Example Question #3 : Help With Endocrine Injuries And Disorders

What disorder is characterized by large weight gain (without change in food intake), slow heart rate, and generalized slowing of movement, speech, and thoughts? 

Possible Answers:

Hyperthyroidism 

Hypoparathyroidism 

Addison's disease 

Hypothyroidism 

Hyperparathyroidism

Correct answer:

Hypothyroidism 

Explanation:

Hypothyroidism is characterized by large weight gain, slow heart rate, and slowing of movement, speech, and thoughts. Hyperthyroidism generally includes the contrasting symptoms, such as weight loss, rapid heart rate, and tremor. Addison's disease involves the hyposecretion of steroid hormones from the adrenal gland and does present with some of the same symptoms as hypothyroidism, but may include nausea, diarrhea, and craving for salty foods. The parathyroid is a major regulator of calcium and phosphate levels via parathyroid hormone. Its effects are to increase blood calcium. 

Example Question #4 : Help With Endocrine Injuries And Disorders

Hypocalcemia is defined as __________.

Possible Answers:

high levels of parathyroid hormone in the blood 

low levels of parathyroid hormone in the blood 

low levels of calcitonin in the blood 

high levels of calcium in the blood 

low levels of calcium in the blood 

Correct answer:

low levels of calcium in the blood 

Explanation:

Hypocalcemia is defined as low levels of calcium in the blood. Hypercalcemia is defined as elevated levels of calcium in the blood. The body's corrective response to hypocalcemia may involve secretion of parathyroid hormone and/or activation of vitamin D.

Example Question #5 : Help With Endocrine Injuries And Disorders

Oversecretion of glucocorticoids is found in what condition? 

Possible Answers:

Addison's disease 

Myasthenia gravis 

Diabetes mellitus 

Cushing's syndrome

Hyperthyroidism 

Correct answer:

Cushing's syndrome

Explanation:

Cushing's syndrome is an endocrine disorder characterized by the oversecretion of glucocorticoids. It is often caused by a pituitary tumor that oversecretes adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or by a cortisol-secreting tumor of the adrenal gland. Addison's disease involves the opposite cause (hyposecretion of glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids from the adrenal gland).

Example Question #6 : Help With Endocrine Injuries And Disorders

Hyposecretion of glucocorticoids is found in what condition?

Possible Answers:

Hypothyroidism 

None of these

Addison's disease 

Cushing's syndrome 

Diabetes mellitus 

Correct answer:

Addison's disease 

Explanation:

Hyposecretion of glucocorticoids is found in Addison's syndrome. Addison's syndrome is often caused by autoimmune conditions, infection, cancer, or tuberculosis. Cushing's syndrome is caused by the opposite (hypersecretion of cortisol).

Example Question #7 : Help With Endocrine Injuries And Disorders

Type I diabetes is caused by insulin deficiency due to loss of what type of cells? 

Possible Answers:

None of these

Beta cells 

Alpha cells 

Gamma cells 

Hepatocytes 

Correct answer:

Beta cells 

Explanation:

Insulin deficiency in type I diabetes is caused by loss of pancreatic beta cells in the islets of Langerhans. It is an autoimmune disorder which results in destruction of beta cells via T-cells. This occurs in genetically-predisposed people, and is treated with insulin therapy. Alpha cells secrete glucagon, and gamma cells secrete somatostatin. 

Example Question #8 : Help With Endocrine Injuries And Disorders

A lack of vitamin D leads to which condition?

Possible Answers:

Rickets 

Osteoporosis 

Diabetes mellitus 

Hypothyroidism 

Arthritis 

Correct answer:

Rickets 

Explanation:

Vitamin D deficiency can lead to a condition called rickets, which is a disease of growing bone. The skin is involved in vitamin D production. Vitamin D3 is produced by UV radiation of substances in the skin. When vitamin D levels are low, the absorption of calcium, phosphorus, and other minerals is impaired. This ultimately leads to bone-softening diseases such as rickets and/or osteomalacia, in which the bones may bow.

Example Question #9 : Help With Endocrine Injuries And Disorders

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is associated with which hormone? 

Possible Answers:

Insulin 

Growth hormone 

Somatostatin 

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) 

Melatonin 

Correct answer:

Melatonin 

Explanation:

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) may be caused by too much melatonin secretion resulting from increased hours of darkness. Melatonin is a hormone that is regulated by the light-dark cycle and plays a role in the circadian rhythm (the body's biological clock). 

Example Question #10 : Help With Endocrine Injuries And Disorders

What is the name of the autoimmune condition that is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism? 

Possible Answers:

Addison's disease 

Grave's disease 

Systemic lupus erythematous 

Myasthenia gravis 

Cushing syndrome 

Correct answer:

Grave's disease 

Explanation:

Grave's disease is an autoimmune condition which causes the body to produce antibodies that bind to thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptors, and mimic the effect of TSH. This results in the overproduction of the thyroid hormone, which leads to hyperthyroidism. Addison's disease is not an autoimmune disease, and involves the hyposecretion of steroid hormones from the adrenal glands. Cushing syndrome is a combination of signs and symptoms caused by prolonged hypercortisolism. Myasthenia gravis may be caused by an autoimmunity malfunction, and involves the inactivation of acetylcholine receptors on the postsynaptic cell of the neuromuscular junction. This results in muscle weakness. Systemic lupus erythematous is an autoimmune disease in which the body mistakenly attacks healthy cells of many different internal organs.

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