All Human Anatomy and Physiology Resources
Example Question #1 : Help With Digestive Injuries And Disorders
A 47-year old woman is brought by ambulance to the trauma bay after being involved in a high-speed motor vehicle collision. She is unresponsive, with a blood pressure of 78/42 and pulse 132. She is immediately intubated and breath sounds are confirmed. Her heart sounds are normal and peripheral pulses are intact. There is no obvious bleeding and two large bore IVs are started. Abdominal ultrasound reveals a fluid collection in the left upper quadrant. She continues to deteriorate and is brought emergently to the OR for exploratory laparotomy, where packing of the abdomen reveals extensive bleeding in the left upper quadrant. What do you expect is the cause of this bleeding?
Left iliac artery laceration
Right iliac artery laceration
Blood collecting in the left upper quadrant would suggest a splenic laceration.
The spleen is one of the most commonly injured organs with blunt abdominal trauma. It can and will bleed enough to make a patient hemodynamically unstable. Ultrasound performed in the trauma bay looks at four potential spaces of fluid collection: Morrison's pouch (right upper quadrant/liver), splenorenal recess (left upper quadrant/spleen), subxiphoid (heart), and the pouch of Douglas (suprapubic/pelvis). The liver is located in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen and the spleen in the left upper quadrant
This patient's ultrasound showed fluid collection in the perisplenic space as well as extensive bleeding, which would suggest a splenic laceration as the cause of the patient's condition.
The liver is in the right upper quadrant. The right and left iliac arteries are in the right and left lower quadrants, respectively. Bladder laceration would result in fluid collection in the pelvis.
Example Question #2 : Help With Digestive Injuries And Disorders
What is the disease caused by the parasite Giardia?
Giardiasis is the disease caused by the Giardia parasite. The parasite is passed through feces and can live up to several weeks outside of a host. Common symptoms of giardiasis is diarrhea, gas, stomach cramps, and dehydration. It is treated via prescription medication. Gastritis is characterized by inflammation of the stomach. In giardiasis, the intestines are affected. Gout is a rheumatoid disease and is not caused by an infectious agent. Geranium is a type of flower.
Example Question #3 : Help With Digestive Injuries And Disorders
What causes salmonella?
Salmonella is an illness caused by a bacterium. Salmonella is often found in raw egg or poultry. It typically presents with gastrointestinal discomfort, diarrhea, and fever. It can be treated with antibiotics, but rarely becomes serious unless it is present in the old, the young, or the immunocompromised.
Example Question #4 : Help With Digestive Injuries And Disorders
When a patient has true "heartburn," their heart is not actually the problem; they are suffering from Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD), also known as acid reflux. In this condition, acidic gastric contents inappropriately travel back from the stomach into the esophagus due to the faulty function of which structure?
Lower esophageal sphincter
Left mainstem bronchus
Upper esophageal sphincter
Lower esophageal sphincter
The correct answer is the lower esophageal sphincter. In "heartburn," a patient's lower esophageal sphincter, which separates the distal esophagus from the proximal stomach, transiently relaxes its tone, inappropriately allowing food/digestive contents that have been acidified for digestion in the stomach to travel backwards into the distal esophagus. In patients with normal lower esophageal sphincter tone, i.e. without GERD, digestive contents that have passed to the stomach remain in the stomach without traveling backwards and causing an acidic, burning sensation in the esophagus.
The other answers are incorrect for the following reasons:
The epiglottis prevents food from being swallowed into the airway by closing off the airway temporarily during swallowing. It does not separate the esophagus from the stomach.
The upper esophageal sphincter is located proximally in the esophagus and opens to allow food to enter the esophagus from the pharynx. It does not separate the esophagus from the stomach.
The ileocecal valve is located distally in the small intestine, separating the ileum from the cecum of the colon. It functions to prevent colo-ileal reflux, but not gastro-esophageal reflux.
The left mainstem bronchus does not play any role in digestion of food or acid reflux, as it is part of the more distal respiratory tract.
Example Question #5 : Help With Digestive Injuries And Disorders
A deficiency of which vitamin or mineral is responsible for beriberi?
Thiamine is a vitamin required for the metabolism of carbohydrates and amino acids. Deficiency of this vitamin results in beriberi, a disease typically of the malnourished. Symptoms of this disease manifest in many different ways such as heart failure, neuropathy, and leg swelling.