Human Anatomy and Physiology : Help with Digestive Injuries and Disorders

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for Human Anatomy and Physiology

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Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Help With Digestive Injuries And Disorders

A 47-year old woman is brought by ambulance to the trauma bay after being involved in a high-speed motor vehicle collision. She is unresponsive, with a blood pressure of 78/42 and pulse 132. She is immediately intubated and breath sounds are confirmed. Her heart sounds are normal and peripheral pulses are intact. There is no obvious bleeding and two large bore IVs are started. Abdominal ultrasound reveals a fluid collection in the left upper quadrant. She continues to deteriorate and is brought emergently to the OR for exploratory laparotomy, where packing of the abdomen reveals extensive bleeding in the left upper quadrant. What do you expect is the cause of this bleeding?

Possible Answers:

Bladder laceration

Left iliac artery laceration

Liver laceration

Right iliac artery laceration

Splenic laceration

Correct answer:

Splenic laceration

Explanation:

Blood collecting in the left upper quadrant would suggest a splenic laceration.

The spleen is one of the most commonly injured organs with blunt abdominal trauma. It can and will bleed enough to make a patient hemodynamically unstable. Ultrasound performed in the trauma bay looks at four potential spaces of fluid collection: Morrison's pouch (right upper quadrant/liver), splenorenal recess (left upper quadrant/spleen), subxiphoid (heart), and the pouch of Douglas (suprapubic/pelvis). The liver is located in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen and the spleen in the left upper quadrant

This patient's ultrasound showed fluid collection in the perisplenic space as well as extensive bleeding, which would suggest a splenic laceration as the cause of the patient's condition.

The liver is in the right upper quadrant. The right and left iliac arteries are in the right and left lower quadrants, respectively. Bladder laceration would result in fluid collection in the pelvis.

Example Question #2 : Help With Digestive Injuries And Disorders

What is the disease caused by the parasite Giardia?

Possible Answers:

Giardiasis

Geranium

Gout

Gastritis

Correct answer:

Giardiasis

Explanation:

Giardiasis is the disease caused by the Giardia parasite. The parasite is passed through feces and can live up to several weeks outside of a host. Common symptoms of giardiasis is diarrhea, gas, stomach cramps, and dehydration. It is treated via prescription medication. Gastritis is characterized by inflammation of the stomach. In giardiasis, the intestines are affected. Gout is a rheumatoid disease and is not caused by an infectious agent. Geranium is a type of flower.

Example Question #3 : Help With Digestive Injuries And Disorders

What causes salmonella?

Possible Answers:

Prion

Fungus

Bacteria

Virus

Correct answer:

Bacteria

Explanation:

Salmonella is an illness caused by a bacterium. Salmonella is often found in raw egg or poultry. It typically presents with gastrointestinal discomfort, diarrhea, and fever. It can be treated with antibiotics, but rarely becomes serious unless it is present in the old, the young, or the immunocompromised. 

Example Question #4 : Help With Digestive Injuries And Disorders

When a patient has true "heartburn," their heart is not actually the problem; they are suffering from Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD), also known as acid reflux. In this condition, acidic gastric contents inappropriately travel back from the stomach into the esophagus due to the faulty function of which structure?

Possible Answers:

Epiglottis

Lower esophageal sphincter

Left mainstem bronchus

Upper esophageal sphincter

Ileocecal valve

Correct answer:

Lower esophageal sphincter

Explanation:

The correct answer is the lower esophageal sphincter. In "heartburn," a patient's lower esophageal sphincter, which separates the distal esophagus from the proximal stomach, transiently relaxes its tone, inappropriately allowing food/digestive contents that have been acidified for digestion in the stomach to travel backwards into the distal esophagus. In patients with normal lower esophageal sphincter tone, i.e. without GERD, digestive contents that have passed to the stomach remain in the stomach without traveling backwards and causing an acidic, burning sensation in the esophagus. 

The other answers are incorrect for the following reasons:

The epiglottis prevents food from being swallowed into the airway by closing off the airway temporarily during swallowing.  It does not separate the esophagus from the stomach.

The upper esophageal sphincter is located proximally in the esophagus and opens to allow food to enter the esophagus from the pharynx. It does not separate the esophagus from the stomach.

The ileocecal valve is located distally in the small intestine, separating the ileum from the cecum of the colon. It functions to prevent colo-ileal reflux, but not gastro-esophageal reflux.

The left mainstem bronchus does not play any role in digestion of food or acid reflux, as it is part of the more distal respiratory tract.

Example Question #5 : Help With Digestive Injuries And Disorders

A deficiency of which vitamin or mineral is responsible for beriberi?

Possible Answers:

Thiamine

Riboflavin

Vitamin E

Vitamin D

Vitamin B12

Correct answer:

Thiamine

Explanation:

Thiamine is a vitamin required for the metabolism of carbohydrates and amino acids. Deficiency of this vitamin results in beriberi, a disease typically of the malnourished. Symptoms of this disease manifest in many different ways such as heart failure, neuropathy, and leg swelling.

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