Human Anatomy and Physiology : Help with Circulatory Proteins and Hormones

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for Human Anatomy and Physiology

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Example Questions

Example Question #61 : Circulatory And Lymphatic Physiology

Which of the following is not an effect of epinephrine on the circulatory system?

Possible Answers:

Increase blood pressure

Constrict the skeletal muscle arterioles

Increase cardiac muscle contractile force

Increase heart rate

Correct answer:

Constrict the skeletal muscle arterioles

Explanation:

Epinephrine is a hormone secreted in order to facilitate "fight or flight" reactions by the body. Secretion of epinephrine from the adrenal medulla is initiated by sympathetic stimulation. Epinephrine will increase heart rate, blood pressure, and contraction force; however, the skeletal muscle arterioles will be dilated so that more blood is able to reach the muscles. The sympathetic nervous system is designed to direct blood toward skeletal muscle and the heart, and away from the digestive tract and skin.

Example Question #1 : Help With Circulatory Proteins And Hormones

Which type of hormone is likely to make its way to the nucleus of a cell or type of cell it influences?

Possible Answers:

Blood soluble hormones

Water soluble hormones

Hydrophilic hormones

Lipid soluble hormones

None of these

Correct answer:

Lipid soluble hormones

Explanation:

A lipid soluble hormone is likely to make its way to the nucleus because it can easily pass through the hydrophobic membranes of cells. A water soluble protein is likely to attach to the outside of a cell and activate a signaling pathway since it cannot readily pass through the phospholipid bilayer (cell membrane). Hydrophilic hormones are the same as water soluble hormones. Fat soluble hormones must be carried by proteins through the blood.

Example Question #2 : Help With Circulatory Proteins And Hormones

If a hormone is released into the blood stream it is called a(n) __________ and its target is likely a(n) __________.

Possible Answers:

exocrine hormone . . . close organ/gland

exocrine hormone . . . distant organ/gland

secretory hormone . . . muscle

endocrine hormone . . . close organ/gland

endocrine hormone . . . distant organ/gland

Correct answer:

endocrine hormone . . . distant organ/gland

Explanation:

Hormones secreted into the blood stream have the ability to travel anywhere in the body. Such hormones are endocrine hormones and they can act on organs far from their source. Substances that are secreted outside the body (or within a body cavity) are not hormones, since all hormones are released by endocrine glands into the blood. Rather, these substances are released by exocrine glands (i.e. sweat, digestive enzymes).

Example Question #3 : Help With Circulatory Proteins And Hormones

Which of the following would directly result in increased heart rate?

Possible Answers:

Norepinephrine on alpha receptors

Norepinephrine on beta-1 receptors

Epinephrine on alpha receptors

Norepinephrine on beta-2 receptors

Epinephrine on beta-2 receptors

Correct answer:

Norepinephrine on beta-1 receptors

Explanation:

Norepinephrine and epinephrine (on about an equal basis) on beta-1 receptors in the heart increase heart rate and contractility (force of contraction). These hormones are released from the adrenals in response to sympathetic stimulation.

Example Question #65 : Circulatory And Lymphatic Physiology

Which of the following is responsible for raising the heart rate from 60 to 100 bpm?

Possible Answers:

A withdrawal of parasympathetic tone

Addition of parasympathetic tone

Addition of sympathetic tone

Withdrawal of sympathetic tone

Epinephrine/norepinephrine

Correct answer:

A withdrawal of parasympathetic tone

Explanation:

Moving the heart rate between 60 and 100 bpm involves only the addition and removal of parasympathetic tone. Remember, parasympathetic: rest and digest; so, to raise the heart rate, parasympathetic tone would have to be withdrawn. Sympathetic tone would not be added until the heart rate exceeds 100 bpm. 

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