Human Anatomy and Physiology : Help with Cells of Adaptive Immunity

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for Human Anatomy and Physiology

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Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Help With Cells Of Adaptive Immunity

Which of the following cells plays a key role in both humoral and cell-mediated immunity?

Possible Answers:

Cytotoxic T-cell

Plasma cell

Basophil

Memory B-cell

Helper T-cell

Correct answer:

Helper T-cell

Explanation:

While humoral immunity and cell-mediated immunity play different roles in the immune system, both systems require helper T-cells. B-lymphocytes must interact with helper T-cells in order to differentiate into plasma and memory B-cells, initiating the humoral immune response. Helper T-cells are also necessary for activating cytotoxic and suppressor T-cells in cell-mediated immunity.

Basophils are not involved in adaptive immunity of any type; they are responsible for inflammation and certain other processes in innate immunity.

Example Question #2 : Help With Cells Of Adaptive Immunity

What is the role of plasma cells?

Possible Answers:

They engulf pathogens in the blood

They release free antibodies into the blood

They present antigens from the blood to helper T-cells for identification

They cause inflammation by secreting plasma-like fluid

They remain latent in the body, and wait for reinfection in order to release antibodies

Correct answer:

They release free antibodies into the blood

Explanation:

Plasma cells arise from B-lymphocytes. When a B-lymphocyte's antibody comes in contact with a matching antigen presented by a macrophage, the B-lymphocyte will differentiate into a plasma cell. The plasma cell will then release free antibodies into the blood which can then attach to the pathogens.

Memory B-cells remain latent in the body and differentiate into plasma cells upon reinfection by the same antigen. Neutrophils, macrophages, and monocytes have phagocytic properties that allow them to engulf and digest pathogens. Mast cells and basophils secrete histamine to stimulate the inflammatory response. Dendritic cells and some other cell types can present antigens to helper T-cells to initiate an adaptive immune response.

Example Question #3 : Help With Cells Of Adaptive Immunity

Which cells are considered lymphocytes? 

Possible Answers:

T cells, B cells, natural killer cells 

B cells, macrophages, dendritic cells 

Neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells 

Eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils 

T cells, B cells, monocytes 

Correct answer:

T cells, B cells, natural killer cells 

Explanation:

Lymphocytes are cells of the adaptive immune system that are mainly found in the lymph. They include the T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells. Macrophages and dendritic cells are types of phagocytes. Basophils and eosinophils are granulocytes. Neutrophils are considered both a granulocyte and phagocyte. 

Example Question #4 : Help With Cells Of Adaptive Immunity

Which type of cell secretes antibodies?

Possible Answers:

B cells 

Neutrophils 

Natural killer cells 

T cells 

None of the other answers 

Correct answer:

B cells 

Explanation:

Antibodies are glycoproteins that are secreted by B cells. B cells must be activated by exposure to a specific antigen before they are able to produce antibodies against the antigen it was exposed to. This is part of the adaptive immune system. 

Example Question #5 : Help With Cells Of Adaptive Immunity

The malfunction of which type of cell is believed to be the cause of many autoimmune diseases?

Possible Answers:

Antibodies 

Cytotoxic T cells 

B cells 

Regulatory T cells 

Basophils 

Correct answer:

Regulatory T cells 

Explanation:

Autoimmune diseases result when the body attacks its own cells. Regulatory T cells work to suppress the body's lymphocytes that may react to self antigens. When regulatory T cells are not working properly, lymphocytes that may react with self antigens are able to cause damage and lead to autoimmune disease. 

Example Question #6 : Help With Cells Of Adaptive Immunity

Where do B cells mature?

Possible Answers:

Lymph nodes

 Thymus

Spleen 

Bone marrow

Correct answer:

Bone marrow

Explanation:

Tissues of the immune system are classified as central (primary) or peripheral (secondary). Primary tissues include bone marrow and the thymus. Within the bone marrow, B and T cells are generated and B cells mature. In the thymus T cell maturation occurs.

Example Question #7 : Help With Cells Of Adaptive Immunity

Where are T cells generated?

Possible Answers:

Spleen

Thymus

Bone marrow

Liver

Lymph nodes

Correct answer:

Bone marrow

Explanation:

Tissues of the immune system are classified as central (primary) or peripheral (secondary). Primary tissues include bone marrow and the thymus. Within the bone marrow B and T cells are generated; B cells also mature here, Whereas T cell maturation occurs in the thymus. 

Example Question #8 : Help With Cells Of Adaptive Immunity

Which cells of the immune system can directly kill a virus-infected cell?

Possible Answers:

Antibody

CD4+

Dendritic cell

B lymphocyte

CD8+

Correct answer:

CD8+

Explanation:

The adaptive immune system consists of the humoral and cell mediated branches. Humoral immunity protects against extracellular pathogens, while the cell-mediated pathway protects against intracellular pathogens. Cells of the cell mediated branch include T helper cells (CD4+: these cells help B cells and other cells activate so they can do their job) and cytotoxic T cells (CD8+: which directly kill infected host cells). Antibodies are not cells.

Example Question #9 : Help With Cells Of Adaptive Immunity

Where do B cells mature?

Possible Answers:

Bone marrow

Spleen 

Thymus

Lymph nodes

Correct answer:

Bone marrow

Explanation:

Tissues of the immune system are classified as central (primary) or peripheral (secondary). Primary tissues include bone marrow and the thymus. Within the bone marrow, B and T cells are generated and B cells also mature. T cell maturation occurs in the thymus. 

Example Question #10 : Help With Cells Of Adaptive Immunity

A 45 year old man has three weeks of diarrhea after returning from his trip abroad. A stool specimen demonstrates a large number of parasitic eggs. In response to this infection, which cell line would you expect to be increased as compared to a non-infected individual?

Possible Answers:

Plasma cells

Red blood cells

Eosinophils

Neutrophils

B-lymphocytes

Correct answer:

Eosinophils

Explanation:

Normally, eosinophils are not produced in high quantities in the body except in the face of parasitic infection. They typically constitute only 2% of the total white blood cell count. Eosinophils are classically elevated in response to infection from a parasite. The other cell lines in the answer choices would not be elevated due to a parasitic infection.

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