Human Anatomy and Physiology : Help with Brain Physiology

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for Human Anatomy and Physiology

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Help With Brain Physiology

What region in the brain may have been damaged if a person has trouble understanding language?

Possible Answers:

Wernicke's Area

Amygdala

Hippocampus

Broca's area

Hypothalamus

Correct answer:

Wernicke's Area

Explanation:

Receptive aphasia, the inability to understand language, is caused by ischemia to Wernicke's area. Wernicke's area is essential to incorporation of language and understanding. In contrast, Broca's area is used in language formation and speech. Someone with expressive aphasia, the inability to form words, has had damage to Broca's area in the inferior frontal gyrus.

The hippocampus is located in the temporal lobe and is responsible for memory formation. The amygdala is located in the brain interior and is responsible for aggression and libido. The globus pallidus is a subcortical structure that is responsible for initiating voluntary movement.

Example Question #2 : Help With Brain Physiology

An unsteady gait or off-balance feeling could indicate that what part of the brain is being affected?

Possible Answers:

Frontal lobe

Occipital lobe

Cerebellum

Parietal lobe

Temporal lobe

Correct answer:

Cerebellum

Explanation:

The cerebellum, located inferoposterior to the cerebrum, is the portion of the brain that controls balance and coordinated muscle movements.

The frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes are all regions of the cerebrum. Each lobe is associated with different types of processing. The frontal lobe helps with motor integration and conscious thought. The temporal lobe is associated with memory and auditory integration. The parietal lobe is responsible for somatosensory inputs. The occipital lobe houses the visual cortex.

Example Question #3 : Help With Brain Physiology

Which portion of the brain is responsible for maintaining body temperature and signaling hunger?

Possible Answers:

Hypothalamus

Brain stem

Thalamus

Cerebellum

Correct answer:

Hypothalamus

Explanation:

The hypothalamus is often called the thermostat of the body. In addition to controlling body temperature, it also controls hunger, thirst, and reproductive behaviors.

The thalamus controls sensory integration. The cerebellum is associated with balance and coordination. The brain stem monitors vital activity, such as circadian rhythm, heart rate, and respiration.

Example Question #4 : Help With Brain Physiology

Which of the following brain structures is NOT correctly matched with its function?

Possible Answers:

Cerebellum helps maintain posture and balance, muscle tone, and coordinate voluntary motor activity

Thalamus is the major relay center for sensory information

Basal ganglia helps initiate voluntary movements and make postural adjustments

Posterior pituitary regulates thirst and water balance

Correct answer:

Posterior pituitary regulates thirst and water balance

Explanation:

The posterior pituitary, or neurohypophysis, receives axons from the hypothalamus and secretes antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin. The hypothalamus is responsible for regulation of thirst and water balance.

The other answer choices correctly match brain structures and functions.

Example Question #5 : Help With Brain Physiology

Which of the following is not a role of the limbic system?

Possible Answers:

Aggression

Feeling and emotion

Spatial memory

Posture and balance

Correct answer:

Posture and balance

Explanation:

The limbic system includes the cingulate gyrus, hippocampus, fornix, mammillary bodies, amygdala, and septal nucleus and is responsible for behavioral and emotional expression. This includes aggression, which is thought to originate from the amygdala. Spatial memory is located in the hippocampus, and is linked to behavioral expression.

The cerebellum controls posture, balance, muscle tone, and coordination of voluntary motor activity.

Example Question #6 : Help With Brain Physiology

Which of the following structures is NOT part of the blood-brain barrier?

Possible Answers:

A basement membrane

Astrocytes

Extensive smooth muscle around arterioles

Tight junctions between capillary endothelial cells

Correct answer:

Extensive smooth muscle around arterioles

Explanation:

The blood-brain barrier is formed by three key structures. Tight junctions between nonfenestrated capillary endothelial cells prevents fluid and solutes from diffusing out of the capillary, as they would in the periphery. A thick basement membrane provides another layer of separation. Astrocytes interact with capillaries to mediate nutrient transfer.

Though most arterioles are surrounded by layers of smooth muscle, only capillaries interface with the blood-brain barrier.

Example Question #1 : Help With Brain Physiology

Which of the following structures secretes cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)?

Possible Answers:

Adrenal cortex

Choroid plexus

Cisterna chyli

Pineal gland

Correct answer:

Choroid plexus

Explanation:

The choroid plexus is a specialized region within the walls of each of the four ventricles in the brain that secretes CSF. Cisterna chyli is a part of the thoracic duct of the lymphatic system, and receives chyle from the intestines. The adrenal cortex and pineal gland secrete hormones, not CSF. 

Example Question #8 : Help With Brain Physiology

Which cranial nerve is known as "the wanderer?"

Possible Answers:

V

X

II

I

Correct answer:

X

Explanation:

Cranial nerve X is also known as the vagus nerve. It is called "the wanderer" because it wanders from the brain stem through the neck, chest, and abdomen. Cranial nerve II is known as the optic nerve. Cranial nerve I is the olfactory nerve and cranial nerve V is the trigeminal nerve. None of the other cranial nerves exit the cranium.

Example Question #9 : Help With Brain Physiology

What structure in the brain maintains vital body functions such as heart rate and breathing?

Possible Answers:

Medulla

Pons

Broca's area

Cerebrum

Correct answer:

Medulla

Explanation:

The Medulla, also known as the medulla oblongata, is located in the brainstem and is responsible for maintaining vital body functions, most notably control of respiratory rate and heart rate. The pons is responsible for relaying information between the forebrain and the cerebellum. The cerebrum integrates complex sensory and neural functions. Broca's area is responsible for generating speech. 

Example Question #10 : Help With Brain Physiology

For what is the "little brain" responsible?

Possible Answers:

Processes visual stimuli

Balance, posture, and coordination

Fight or flight response

Controls heart rate and breathing

Correct answer:

Balance, posture, and coordination

Explanation:

The "little brain" is also known as the cerebellum. The Cerebellum is responsible for allowing people to maintain their posture and ability to move effectively. The occipital lobe processes visual stimuli, the medulla controls heart rate and breathing, and the flight or fight response is mediated by the amygdala.

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