HiSET: Language Arts - Writing : Recognizing subordination and coordination, parallelism, and modifier placement

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for HiSET: Language Arts - Writing

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Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Recognizing Subordination And Coordination, Parallelism, And Modifier Placement

Jimmy is annoyed at the video game that he was playing. For one thing, there was not nearly enough interesting characters suspenseful moments or exciting escapes in the game to satisfy him. For another, it was incredibly hard while playing the game to control the cars. It always wanted to veer to the left when he tried to steer to the right. But the ending of the game was worst. By the time he got to the end, the hero had decided to stop chasing rogue spies and therefore marry his girlfriend, a surprise attack resulted in her being kidnapped, and the hero must go on a final mission to save her before the game can be completed. That would of been fine, except it involved tracking the enemy using a helicopter, and Jimmy much to his chagrin never mastered flying the helicopter.

Choose the option that best corrects the bolded and underlined section of the text.

Possible Answers:

Omit the highlighted word

consequently

thus

(no change)

Correct answer:

Omit the highlighted word

Explanation:

The game hero's action of deciding to stop chasing rogue spies does not entail his marrying his romantic partner; he could have simply decided he needed a career change. Since there is no causal connection between the two actions, it is incorrect to use a conjunction like "therefore," "consequently," or "thus," and the conjunction should simply be omitted from the sentence: "the hero had decided to stop chasing rogue spies and marry his girlfriend." "Therefore" always suggests a rock-solid, direct causal relationship, as do "thus" and "consequently."

Example Question #2 : Recognizing Subordination And Coordination, Parallelism, And Modifier Placement

Jimmy is annoyed at the video game that he was playing. For one thing, there was not nearly enough interesting characters suspenseful moments or exciting escapes in the game to satisfy him. For another, it was incredibly hard while playing the game to control the cars. It always wanted to veer to the left when he tried to steer to the right. But the ending of the game was worst. By the time he got to the end, the hero had decided to stop chasing rogue spies and therefore marry his girlfriend, a surprise attack resulted in her being kidnapped, and the hero must go on a final mission to save her before the game can be completed. That would of been fine, except it involved tracking the enemy using a helicopter, and Jimmy much to his chagrin never mastered flying the helicopter.

Choose the option that best corrects the bolded and underlined section of the text.

Possible Answers:

(no change)

Jimmy, much to his chagrin, never mastered

Jimmy, much to his chagrin never mastered

Jimmy much to his chagrin, never mastered

Correct answer:

Jimmy, much to his chagrin, never mastered

Explanation:

The phrase "much to his chagrin" contains extra information in the sentence and can be taken out without affecting the sentence's meaning, so it should be set off by commas. Such constructions are called parenthetical phrases.

Example Question #3 : Recognizing Subordination And Coordination, Parallelism, And Modifier Placement

1    The recruitment of elite athletes by American universities has recently reached new levels of both sophistication and it is very competitive. The benefits of having top-quality athletic programs are obvious: massive television revenues, marketing deals with major corporate sponsors, and increased alumni donations.  However, the desire to achieve these riches ledmany colleges to sanction practices that are both ethically and legally questionable.

2    Colleges have traditionally made allowances in their admission standards for athletes who might not have otherwise been academically qualified.  In recent years, however, several cases of outright academic fraud have been uncovered at major American universities.  These include fraudulent transcripts, fictitious online coursework, and the increasingly common practice of having a star athlete repeat a grade or two in order to achieve a higher grade point average.

3  The recruitment of potential college athletes is also starting at a much earlier age as it was beforeSome football and basketball players have been given scholarship offers before they enroll in high school.  The presence of various types of social media also plays a large role in the recruiting process.  Of course, the offers are non-binding, and oftentimes, the athletes in question do not actually attend the school at all.

4.  It would be a good idea for the leaders of American universities to remind themselves of the academic mission of their institutions before they allow the pursuit of money and fame  to corrupt them.  Success on the playing fields is a noble goal, but not if it comes at the cost ignoring the true purpose of higher education.

What is the best choice to replace the bolded and underlined phrase?

Possible Answers:

(no change)

competitiveness.

competition.

competitively.

Correct answer:

competitiveness.

Explanation:

Parallelism requires that the word that comes after the coordinator "and" needs to be the same part of speech as the word that precedes it.  "Sophistication" is an adjective, so the correct answer choice "competitiveness" should also be an adjective.

Example Question #4 : Recognizing Subordination And Coordination, Parallelism, And Modifier Placement

Eating a balanced diet is integral to staying healthy. Your parents may tell you that; "An apple a day keeps the doctor away." [1] It is important to remember to eat lots of fruits and vegetables. Having a colorful plate will help you feel good and get a lot of vitamins and nutrients.

1. Choose the answer that is the most grammatically correct.

Possible Answers:

Your parents may tell you that "An apple a day keeps the doctor away." 

No change

Your parents, may tell you that "An apple a day keeps the doctor away."

Your parents may, tell you that "An apple a day keeps the doctor away."

Your parents may tell you, that, "An apple a day keeps the doctor away."

Correct answer:

Your parents may tell you that "An apple a day keeps the doctor away." 

Explanation:

In the incorrect answers, the commas are misplaced. Often, reading the sentence out loud and taking a breath where the comma is placed will help you determine whether the comma placement is awkward. 

Example Question #5 : Recognizing Subordination And Coordination, Parallelism, And Modifier Placement

In food deserts, overweight kids are not only at risk of becoming obese. They also may develop diseases like heart disease and diabetes in the future. [4] These neighborhoods need help to save the next generation of kids from suffering from these diseases.

Choose the option that is the most grammatically correct.

Possible Answers:

No change

In food deserts, overweight kids are not only at risk of becoming obese; however, they also may develop diseases like heart disease and diabetes in the future.

In food deserts, overweight kids are not only at risk of becoming obese, but also may develop diseases like heart disease and diabetes in the future.

In food deserts, overweight kids are not only at risk of becoming obese, and also may develop diseases like heart disease and diabetes in the future.

In food deserts, overweight kids are not only at risk of becoming obese; they also may develop diseases like heart disease and diabetes in the future.

Correct answer:

In food deserts, overweight kids are not only at risk of becoming obese, but also may develop diseases like heart disease and diabetes in the future.

Explanation:

The incorrect answer splits two connected ideas into two separate sentences, which is unnecessary. The correct answer combines the ideas into one complete idea.

Example Question #6 : Recognizing Subordination And Coordination, Parallelism, And Modifier Placement

(1) The film shows us the cultural phenomenon of rumspringa, a time in which Amish teens can metaphorically “run around” and explore the ways of the outside world without being punished for betraying their communities and families’ strict rules. (2) We see several young Amish partaking in unusual behavior, including drinking and smoking. As disturbing as some of the film are, the tumultuous period of rumspringa is educative because it results in education and is an enlightening experience. It gives the Amish a time to explore the “English” world and gain an understanding of what they will have to forego if they choose to join the Amish Church. (3) Amish teenagers get a chance to experience the clothes, music and lifestyles of the “English” and can judge for themselves how well suited they feel in those contexts.

Which of the following is the best revision of sentence 3?

Possible Answers:

(no change)

Teenagers in the Amish community get a change to experience the “English” lifestyle in order to decide whether or not they should stay in the church, including music, clothes, and lifestyles. 

Amish teenagers get a chance to experience the clothes, music and lifestyles of the “English” and can judge for themselves if these are contexts they are suited to. 

Amish teenagers get a chance to experience the clothes, music and ways of living as the “English,” and can judge their feelings within these contexts as suitable or not. 

Correct answer:

(no change)

Explanation:

Sentence 3 is concise and grammatically correct as is, and so it should not be changed. The other options were wordier, included errors in parallelism, modifiers or in grammar. 

Example Question #7 : Recognizing Subordination And Coordination, Parallelism, And Modifier Placement

In one small town in California, [5] community leaders were worried about the next generation of kids growing up overweight because of the unhealthy food options. Local leaders decided to create a program in which [6] farmers taught kids how to cook healthy meals. In the six-week program, farmers taught kids how to grow fresh vegetables. In the newly-dug school gardens. [7] The kids were proud to eat tomatoes, lettuce, and beans that they had grown in their [8] own gardens. Plus, these vegetables can make delicious meals from all different cultures. [9]

Choose the most grammatically correct option.

Possible Answers:

In one small town, in California, community leaders were worried about the next generation of kids growing up overweight because of the unhealthy food options.

In one small town in California community leaders were worried about the next generation of kids growing up overweight because of the unhealthy food options.

No Change

In one small town, in California community leaders were worried about the next generation of kids growing up overweight because of the unhealthy food options.

In one small town in California community leaders, were worried about the next generation of kids growing up overweight because of the unhealthy food options.

Correct answer:

No Change

Explanation:

In the correct answer, the comma is placed after the entire introductory phrase, which sets up context of the sentence. 

Example Question #8 : Recognizing Subordination And Coordination, Parallelism, And Modifier Placement

In one small town in California, [5] community leaders were worried about the next generation of kids growing up overweight because of the unhealthy food options. Local leaders decided to create a program in which [6] farmers taught kids how to cook healthy meals. In the six-week program, farmers taught kids how to grow fresh vegetables. In the newly-dug school gardens. [7] The kids were proud to eat tomatoes, lettuce, and beans that they had grown in their [8] own gardens. Plus, these vegetables can make delicious meals from all different cultures. [9]

Choose the most grammatically correct option.

Possible Answers:

No change

Local leaders decided to create a program when farmers taught kids how to cook healthy meals. In the six-week program, farmers taught kids how to grow fresh vegetables. In the newly-dug school gardens.

Local leaders decided to create a program where farmers taught kids how to cook healthy meals. In the six-week program, farmers taught kids how to grow fresh vegetables. In the newly-dug school gardens.

Local leaders decided to create a program which farmers taught kids how to cook healthy meals. In the six-week program, farmers taught kids how to grow fresh vegetables. In the newly-dug school gardens. (No change)

Local leaders decided to create a program that farmers taught kids how to cook healthy meals. In the six-week program, farmers taught kids how to grow fresh vegetables. In the newly-dug school gardens. (No change)

Correct answer:

No change

Explanation:

The underlined phrase is the most appropriate relative pronoun that connects the two sentences. 

Example Question #9 : Recognizing Subordination And Coordination, Parallelism, And Modifier Placement

Sometimes, a person may not be able to buy fresh produce if they live [2] in neighborhoods without supermarkets. The closest thing to vegetables that a corner store may stock is potato chips. In some areas, it is less expensive to walk to a corner store and pick up a candy bar than to drive to a far-away grocery store. These areas are called food deserts; where it is even harder to find fresh food than water in a desert! [3]

Choose the option that is the most grammatically correct.

Possible Answers:

These areas are called food deserts where it is even harder to find fresh food than water in a desert!

These areas are called food deserts, where it is even harder to find fresh food than water in a desert!

No change

These areas are called food deserts where, it is even harder to find fresh food than water in a desert!

These areas are called food deserts where it is even harder to find fresh food, than water in a desert!

Correct answer:

These areas are called food deserts, where it is even harder to find fresh food than water in a desert!

Explanation:

In the original answer, a semicolon is incorrectly used as it is not connecting two complete sentences. In the other incorrect answers, the comma is misplaced. Try reading the sentence out loud, and place the comma where you naturally take a breath.

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