High School Chemistry : Help with Subatomic Particles

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for High School Chemistry

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Example Questions

Example Question #11 : Elements And Atoms

Which of the following statements is true?

Possible Answers:

Electrons are smaller in size than nucleons, but have equal charge

Electrons are close in proximity to the atomic nucleus

The nucleus of an atom is electrically neutral

Electrons are smaller than protons, which means they have less charge than protons

Electrons are larger than protons, which means they must have less charge than protons

Correct answer:

Electrons are smaller in size than nucleons, but have equal charge

Explanation:

Electrons are notably smaller than nucleons (protons and neutrons), however, they have an equal amount of charge to protons. This is why an atom with the same amount of protons as electrons is considered electrically neutral.

The nucleus itself is positively charged, as the electrons are located relatively far away from the atomic center.

 

Example Question #11 : Elements And Atoms

Which of the following describes a nucleon?

Possible Answers:

Neutrons

A proton or a neutron

Electrons

Protons

A proton and neutron unit

Correct answer:

A proton or a neutron

Explanation:

A nucleon is defined as a particle that is found in the nucleus of an atom. The nucleus is composed of proton particles and neutron particles. These are densely bound together to form a nucleus; thus, these two subatomic particles are nucleons.

Electrons are found in a wide radius outside the nucleus, and are not considered nucleons.

Example Question #12 : Elements And Atoms

What experiment confirmed the physical nature of an atom?

Possible Answers:

Rutherford's silver foil experiment

Rutherford's copper foil experiment

Rutherford's iron foil experiment

Rutherford's gold foil experiment

Rutherford's bronze foil experiment

Correct answer:

Rutherford's gold foil experiment

Explanation:

The experiment that confirms the atom structure is Rutherford's gold foil experiment. In the experiment, alpha particles were directed toward a thin piece of gold foil and reflected radiation was detected. The result of the experiment showed very little reflection, and most of the radiation passed straight through the foil. The conclusion drawn was that the majority of atomic volume consists of a loose electron cloud, and only a small region is occupied by a dense nucleus capable of reflecting the alpha radiation.

Example Question #13 : Elements And Atoms

Where are electrons located in an atom?

Possible Answers:

In the nucleus

In the valence shell

In the electron nucleus

In the electron cloud

In the dense nucleus

Correct answer:

In the electron cloud

Explanation:

Electrons are located in an electron cloud, which surrounds a densely packed center known as the nucleus. The nucleus is composed of protons and neutrons. Note that the valence shell contains electrons, but only refers to the region of the electron cloud farthest from the nucleus.

The experiment that confirms the atom structure is Rutherford's gold foil experiment. In the experiment, alpha particles were directed toward a thin piece of gold foil and reflected radiation was detected. The result of the experiment showed very little reflection, and most of the radiation passed straight through the foil. The conclusion drawn was that the majority of atomic volume consists of a loose electron cloud, and only a small region is occupied by a dense nucleus capable of reflecting the alpha radiation.

Example Question #14 : Elements And Atoms

Which of the following statements is false?

Possible Answers:

Electrons are located in the electron cloud. They carry a net negative charge and contribute a negligible mass to the atomic weight of the element

Neutrons are located in the nucleus and have a net neutral charge. The number of neutrons determines the isotope of the element, and thus contributes to the atomic weight of the element.

Protons are located in the nucleus. They determine the atomic number of an element and carry a positive charge.

All of these statements are true

The protons in the nucleus attract the electrons in the electron cloud

Correct answer:

All of these statements are true

Explanation:

All of the given statements are true.

Protons and neutrons are found in the atom's nucleus. The number of protons is the factor used to identify an atomic element, while the number of neutrons contributes to the overall atomic mass and isotopic identity. Electrons are found in the electron cloud and have negligible mass (significantly less than protons or neutrons). Protons are positively charged, while electrons are negatively charged, creating an attraction force.

Example Question #15 : Elements And Atoms

What is the charge of a neutron?

Possible Answers:

Correct answer:

Explanation:

Neutrons have no charge. Electrons have a charge of  and protons have a charge of .

Example Question #16 : Elements And Atoms

Which subatomic particles are found in the nucleus of an atom?

Possible Answers:

Protons only

Neutrons and electrons

Protons, neutrons, and electrons

Protons and neutrons

Protons and electrons

Correct answer:

Protons and neutrons

Explanation:

Protons and neutrons are found in the nucleus of atoms, while electrons are found in orbitals around the nucleus.

Example Question #17 : Elements And Atoms

How many electrons does the  ion have?

Possible Answers:

Correct answer:

Explanation:

First, start off by finding S (sulfur) on the periodic table. According to the period table, the atomic number for sulfur is 16. That means that sulfur (in it's uncharged, unionized state) has 16 protons, and 16 electrons. Since this ion has a negative two charge, we know it has picked up two extra electrons. Thus  contains 18 electrons.

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