High School Biology : Understanding Stages of the Cell Cycle

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for High School Biology

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Understanding Stages Of The Cell Cycle

During which stage of the cell cycle is DNA replicated?

Possible Answers:

G1 phase

S phase

G2 phase

M phase

Correct answer:

S phase

Explanation:

The S phase (or synthesis phase) is a period of the cell cycle during which DNA is replicated (or synthesized). G1 and G2 are both growth phases, during which cellular organelles are replicated and the cell grows in size. The M phase refers to mitosis, or cell division.

Example Question #2 : Understanding Stages Of The Cell Cycle

What stage of the cell cycle results in a duplication of the genetic material in the cell?

Possible Answers:

The M phase

The G1 phase

The S phase

The G2 phase

Correct answer:

The S phase

Explanation:

During the S phase, the cell dedicates its time to replicating its DNA. The S phase is named for the synthesis of DNA.

The G phases are needed for increasing proteins and cellular organelles, and are known for cellular growth. The M phase is also known as mitosis.

Example Question #83 : Cell Division

What step in the cell cycle precedes mitosis, and is characterized by organelle replication?

Possible Answers:

S phase

G1 phase

M phase

G2 phase

Correct answer:

G2 phase

Explanation:

There are two stages in the cell cycle marked by the replication of organelles and protein synthesis: G1 and G2. G1 follows mitosis and allows the cell to grow. G2 occurs just before mitosis, and ensures that both daughter cells will have adequate organelles. It also allows proteins necessary for mitosis to be translated.

The overall order of the cell cycle is: G1, S, G2, M. G1 is a growth period. S marks the replication of DNA, resulting in the production of identical sister chromatids. G2 is responsible for organelle synthesis. The M phase is mitosis, or cell division.

Example Question #84 : Cell Division

During which phase of the cell cycle does the cell grow and make organelles?

Possible Answers:

G2 phase

Telophase

G1 phase

S phase

Correct answer:

G1 phase

Explanation:

The cell cycle consists of four major phases: G1, S, G2, and M.

The G1 phase stands for gap 1 and is when organelles replicate and the cell grows.

The S phase stands for synthesis and is when DNA is replicated.

The G2 phase stands for gap 2 and is when DNA is proofread and DNA damage is repaired.

The M phase is mitosis, which is further broken down into prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, and cytokinesis. Prophase is when the chromosomes condense. Metaphase is when the chromosomes line up at the metaphase plate in the center of the cell. Anaphase is when the sister chromatids are pulled to opposite sides of the cell. Telophase is when the cell begins to split and the nuclear membrane reassembles. Cytokinesis is when the cytoplasm pinches off and two daughter cells are formed. 

G0 is a separate phase, in which the cell cycle is stopped. Cells in the G0 phase are known as quiescent cells, and do not divide.

Example Question #85 : Cell Division

During which phase of the cell cycle does the parent cell split into two daughter cells?

Possible Answers:

M phase

G0 phase

G1 phase

S phase

Correct answer:

M phase

Explanation:

The cell cycle consists of four major phases: G1, S, G2, and M.

The G1 phase stands for gap 1 and is when organelles replicate and the cell grows.

The S phase stands for synthesis and is when DNA is replicated.

The G2 phase stands for gap 2 and is when DNA is proofread and DNA damage is repaired.

The M phase is mitosis, which is further broken down into prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, and cytokinesis. Prophase is when the chromosomes condense. Metaphase is when the chromosomes line up at the metaphase plate in the center of the cell. Anaphase is when the sister chromatids are pulled to opposite sides of the cell. Telophase is when the cell begins to split and the nuclear membrane reassembles. Cytokinesis is when the cytoplasm pinches off and two daughter cells are formed. 

G0 is a separate phase, in which the cell cycle is stopped. Cells in the G0 phase are known as quiescent cells, and do not divide.

Example Question #86 : Cell Division

During which phase of the cell cycle is DNA synthesized?

Possible Answers:

G1 phase

Prophase

G2 phase

S phase

Correct answer:

S phase

Explanation:

The cell cycle consists of four major phases: G1, S, G2, and M.

The G1 phase stands for gap 1 and is when organelles replicate and the cell grows.

The S phase stands for synthesis and is when DNA is replicated.

The G2 phase stands for gap 2 and is when DNA is proofread and DNA damage is repaired.

The M phase is mitosis, which is further broken down into prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, and cytokinesis. Prophase is when the chromosomes condense. Metaphase is when the chromosomes line up at the metaphase plate in the center of the cell. Anaphase is when the sister chromatids are pulled to opposite sides of the cell. Telophase is when the cell begins to split and the nuclear membrane reassembles. Cytokinesis is when the cytoplasm pinches off and two daughter cells are formed. 

G0 is a separate phase, in which the cell cycle is stopped. Cells in the G0 phase are known as quiescent cells, and do not divide.

Example Question #87 : Cell Division

During which phase of the cell cycle is DNA proofread and repaired?

Possible Answers:

G1 phase

G2 phase

S phase

Mitosis

Correct answer:

G2 phase

Explanation:

The cell cycle consists of four major phases: G1, S, G2, and M.

The G1 phase stands for gap 1 and is when organelles replicate and the cell grows.

The S phase stands for synthesis and is when DNA is replicated.

The G2 phase stands for gap 2 and is when DNA is proofread and DNA damage is repaired.

The M phase is mitosis, which is further broken down into prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, and cytokinesis. Prophase is when the chromosomes condense. Metaphase is when the chromosomes line up at the metaphase plate in the center of the cell. Anaphase is when the sister chromatids are pulled to opposite sides of the cell. Telophase is when the cell begins to split and the nuclear membrane reassembles. Cytokinesis is when the cytoplasm pinches off and two daughter cells are formed. 

G0 is a separate phase, in which the cell cycle is stopped. Cells in the G0 phase are known as quiescent cells, and do not divide.

Example Question #88 : Cell Division

During which phase of mitosis does the DNA condense into chromosomes?

Possible Answers:

Telophase

Prophase

Metaphase

S phase

Correct answer:

Prophase

Explanation:

The cell cycle consists of four major phases: G1, S, G2, and M.

The M phase is mitosis, which is further broken down into prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, and cytokinesis.

Prophase is when the nuclear envelope dissolves and chromosomes condense. Metaphase is when the chromosomes line up at the metaphase plate in the center of the cell. Anaphase is when the sister chromatids are pulled to opposite sides of the cell by spindle fibers. Telophase is when the cell begins to split and the nuclear membrane reassembles. Cytokinesis is when the cytoplasm pinches off and two daughter cells are formed.

The S phase of the cell cycle is the period during which DNA is replicated.

Example Question #89 : Cell Division

During what phase of mitosis does the cell physically split into two daughter cells?

Possible Answers:

Cytokinesis

Telophase

Metaphase

Anaphase

Correct answer:

Cytokinesis

Explanation:

The cell cycle consists of four major phases: G1, S, G2, and M.

The M phase is mitosis, which is further broken down into prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, and cytokinesis.

Prophase is when the nuclear envelope dissolves and chromosomes condense. Metaphase is when the chromosomes line up at the metaphase plate in the center of the cell. Anaphase is when the sister chromatids are pulled to opposite sides of the cell by spindle fibers. Telophase is when the cell begins to split and the nuclear membrane reassembles. Cytokinesis is when the cytoplasm pinches off and two daughter cells are formed.

It is important to note that the cell generates two daughter nuclei during telophase, but the cytoplasm does not divide until cytokinesis. As such, there is a short period during which the cell has two, identical, fully formed nuclei.

The S phase of the cell cycle is the period during which DNA is replicated.

Example Question #90 : Cell Division

The G0 phase of the cell cycle is characterized by which of the following?

Possible Answers:

Halt in division of a cell

Replication of DNA

Growth of the parent cell

Growth of the daughter cell

Correct answer:

Halt in division of a cell

Explanation:

The G0 phase, sometimes called the resting or quiescent phase, is a phase of the cell cycle during which the cell remains in an inactive or dormant state. The G0 phase is often seen as an extension of the first growth phase (G1), during which the cell is not undergoing division or getting ready to undergo division, or it may be seen as a phase that happens separate from the cell cycle completely. Certain types of cells, such as nerve cells, enter into the G0 phase once they are mature, even though they continue to perform their designated functions. Cells enter this inactive stage from a checkpoint present in the G1 phase. Entrance into the G0 phase typically occurs in response to a deficiency of key nutrients and growth factors. The cell will remain in the this stage until these growth factors and nutrients are sufficient enough for the cell to continue through the cell cycle. The G0 phase is not always a component of the normal cell cycle.

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