High School Biology : Understanding Requirements for Life and Cell Theory

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for High School Biology

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Example Question #1 : Understanding Requirements For Life And Cell Theory

Which of the following is not a requirement for life?

Possible Answers:

Metabolism of energy

Shelter

Reproduction

Growth

Correct answer:

Shelter

Explanation:

All life forms must be able to uptake or produce energy to survive (metabolism), grow, and reproduce to propagate the species. While having a safe place to live is an ideal for most species, it is not a requirement of life.

These criteria can be tested by thinking of a single cell. A single cell requires energy, and can metabolize it via glycolysis (even in an anaerobic environment). A cell can grow, and does so during the G1 phase of the cell cycle. A cell is also capable of reproducing via mitosis. A single cells does not, however, require shelter; some cells live in highly extreme environments.

Example Question #2 : Understanding Requirements For Life And Cell Theory

Which of the following is not a major requirement for life?

Possible Answers:

Must grow through metabolism

Ability to interact with other life

Must be able to reproduce

All of these are requirements for life

Must be adapt to the environment

Correct answer:

Ability to interact with other life

Explanation:

An object is considered as 'living' if it is able to grow through metabolism, adapt to the environment, and reproduce. All organisms are also composed of cells.

Ability to interact with other life forms is not a requirement for life.

Example Question #3 : Understanding Requirements For Life And Cell Theory

What makes up the secondary structure of Proteins?

Possible Answers:

Carbon bonds with the R group of another amino acid.

Sulfur bonds between two cysteine amino acids.

Hydrogen bonds that hold helix coils in shape.

An ionic attraction occurs between oppositely charged amino acids.

Correct answer:

Hydrogen bonds that hold helix coils in shape.

Explanation:

A helix is formed when Hydrogen bonds occur between the amino group in one peptide bond and the carboxyl group of another in the same polypeptide chain.

Example Question #4 : Understanding Requirements For Life And Cell Theory

Which of the following biological macromolecules is incorrectly paired with its function in animal cells?

Possible Answers:

DNA functions include storage of genetic information, as well as instructions and control of protein synthesis

Carbohydrates functions include cell signalling, energy storage, and building blocks for nucleotides

Protein functions include receptors, cell signaling, enzymes, and cell structure

All of the biological macromolecules are correctly paired with their functions in animal cells

Lipids functions include biological membranes, cell signaling, and energy storage

Correct answer:

All of the biological macromolecules are correctly paired with their functions in animal cells

Explanation:

The four basic biological macromolecules carry out virtually every metabolic process of living organisms. Keep in mind that these molecules work together to achieve common goals. For example, enzymes (proteins) are used to help break down glucose (carbohydrate) in glycolysis. One product of glycolysis is energy in the form of ATP. ATP can be used to polymerize nucleotides (nucleic acids) to copy DNA.

The functions of specific types of macromolecules are highly dependent on their structures. For example, firbous proteins are used to provide structural support, while globular proteins are better suited to catalyze reactions as enzymes. The variety of macromolecular structures is directly related to the multitude of functions these molecules can facilitate.

Example Question #1 : Understanding Requirements For Life And Cell Theory

Which of the following is not a fundamental attribute of life?

Possible Answers:

Ability to process and generate energy

Ability to grow and develop

All of these answers are attributes of life

Ability to reproduce

Ability to adapt to the environment

Correct answer:

All of these answers are attributes of life

Explanation:

All of these answers are characteristics of life. All organisms are capable of reproduction, respond to their surrounding environmental stimuli, process chemical energy, and grow and develop. This is true of organisms are any level, from animals like humans, down to the simplest prokaryotic bacteria.

Example Question #6 : Understanding Requirements For Life And Cell Theory

Proteins are extremely important to biological function and metabolism. Amino acids are the monomers that make up proteins. What elements can be found in amino acids?

Possible Answers:

Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur

Carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen

Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and phosphorous

Correct answer:

Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur

Explanation:

All amino acids contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. These elements create a carboxylic acid group and an amine group, which can fuse to form a peptide bond. Peptide bonds hold amino acids together and generate the primary structure of the protein.

Cysteine, a specific amino acid, also contains sulfur. Thus, the correct answer is that carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur can all be found in amino acids.

Phosphorus is never found in amino acids, but plays an important role in the structure of nucleic acids, such as DNA, and in the modification and activation of proteins.

 

Example Question #7 : Understanding Requirements For Life And Cell Theory

What can be used to tell the difference between amino acids?

Possible Answers:

The amine group

The carboxyl group

The central carbon atom

The R group

Correct answer:

The R group

Explanation:

The R group is a side chain connected to the central carbon atom in an amino acid. The central carbon atom of an amino acid can bind to four other groups. In an amino acid, the central carbon will always bind to a carboxyl group, and amine group, and a hydrogen atom. The fourth bond, however, will be different for each amino acid, linking the central carbon to the R group.

Example Question #2 : Understanding Requirements For Life And Cell Theory

Proteins have a huge variety of functions. What is one function that they do not provide?

Possible Answers:

Transport oxygen in cells

Repair DNA molecules

Convert starch to glucose

Provide a waterproof coating on skin

Correct answer:

Provide a waterproof coating on skin

Explanation:

Waxes provide skin with a waterproof coating. Waxes are made out of fats.

Hemoglobin is a protein responsible for transporting oxygen. DNA polymerase repairs DNA molecules. Amylase is the protein that helps convert starch to glucose.

Example Question #9 : Understanding Requirements For Life And Cell Theory

How do amino acids connect to make a protein?

Possible Answers:

Hydrogen is added to atoms of carbon, forming kinks at the double bonds

The carbon atom of the carboxyl group bonds with the nitrogen atom of the amine group through a dehydration synthesis reaction

Hydroxide binds with hydrogen between the alcohol group and the carboxyl group through a hydration synthesis reaction

A peptide bond is formed between the ketone group of one amino acid and the nitrogen group of another amino acid

Correct answer:

The carbon atom of the carboxyl group bonds with the nitrogen atom of the amine group through a dehydration synthesis reaction

Explanation:

Proteins are synthesized through dehydration synthesis reactions, which is the removal of water between two amino acids. In this case, two hydrogen atoms are removed from the amine group and one oxygen is removed from the carboxyl group, forming a peptide bond between the carbon atom of one amino acid and the nitrogen atom of the other amino acid.

Example Question #10 : Understanding Requirements For Life And Cell Theory

What determines the primary structure of a protein?

Possible Answers:

The array of polypeptide chains lying side by side

The sequence of amino acids in a chain

The segments in the polypeptide chain that forms coils

The folding of the R groups in the side chains of amino acids

Correct answer:

The sequence of amino acids in a chain

Explanation:

The sequence of amino acids is called a protein's primary structure. Each protein has a unique sequence of amino acids. A difference of just one amino acid in a chain of hundreds can be deadly to the organism. For example, mutation leading to a single amino acid change is responsible for sickle cell anemia.

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