High School Biology : Understanding Reproductive Functions

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for High School Biology

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Example Questions

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Example Question #8 : Reproductive System

The luteal surge results in which key event in the female reproductive system?

Possible Answers:

Capacitation

Menstruation

Fertilization

Ovulation

Correct answer:

Ovulation

Explanation:

As estrogen increases in the female body, it can cause a spike of luteinizing hormone (LH) resulting in a temporary positive feedback loop (the luteal surge). This spike in estrogen and LH levels causes the follicle to burst, releasing the egg into the fallopian tube. This event is called ovulation.

Example Question #1 : Understanding Reproductive Functions

Which gland creates a milky, alkaline solution, which helps sperm survive in the acidic envorionment of the female reproductive tract? 

Possible Answers:

Prostate gland

Adrenal glands

Thyroid gland

Bulbourtheral glands

Thymus gland

Correct answer:

Prostate gland

Explanation:

The bulbourethral glands aid in the process of ejaculation by lubricating the urethra. The thyroid, thymus and adrenal glands are not parts of the reproductive system. The thyroid gland secretes thyroid hormones which controls the body's metabolism and homeostasis. The thymus gland is responsible for secreting thymosine, which facilitates the maturation of T cells of the immune system. The adrenal glands are responsible for regulation of many body processes including the stress response, fluid and electrolyte balance, sex hormone production, blood glucose levels, and the fight, flight and fight response.

Example Question #10 : Reproductive System

Which of the following hormones is secreted by the ovaries and is responsible for the development of secondary sex characteristics in females?

Possible Answers:

Corpus luteum

Follicle-stimulating hormone

Luteinizing hormone

Estrogen

Testosterone

Correct answer:

Estrogen

Explanation:

Females' ovaries secrete estrogen, testosterone, and progesterone. Estrogen has many functions, including development of female secondary sex characteristics. Such charactersistics include, but are not limited to: development of breast tissue, redistribution of body fat to the hips, thighs, buttocks, and breasts, and initiation of menses. In females, testosterone functions primarily to increase sexual arousal. Progesterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone play roles in the menstrual cycle. The corpus luteum is formed from the follicle and remains in the ovary after the egg has been released. It secretes progesterone for about two weeks, then deteriorates in the absence of a pregnancy.

Example Question #2 : Understanding Reproductive Functions

Which of the following structures is the site of development and maturation of sperm and secretion of testosterone?

Possible Answers:

Testes

Bulbourethral gland

Ovaries

Prostate gland

Fallopian tubes

Correct answer:

Testes

Explanation:

The male gonads, the testes, are responsible development and maturation of sperm and secretion of testosterone. Ovaries and fallopian tubes can be ruled out because they are found only in females, and thus do not contribute to the development of sperm. The prostate gland does not produce sperm, rather it secretes fluid that nourishes and protects sperm. The bulbourethral gland aids in the process of ejaculation.

Example Question #12 : Reproductive System

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) are produced and secreted by which of the following structures?

Possible Answers:

Thyroid gland

Prostate gland

Uterus

Hypothalamus

Anterior pituitary gland

Correct answer:

Anterior pituitary gland

Explanation:

The anterior pituitary gland produces both FSH and LH, two hormones that play key roles in the menstrual cycle. The hypothalamus produces several tropic hormones and is responsible for maintaining homeostatis of the body via the endocrine system. The thyroid gland determines metabolic rate. The prostate gland does not produce any hormones. The uterus does not produce these two hormones; however, since LH and FSH regulate the menstrual cycle, events in the uterus are indirectly influenced by FSH and LH. 

Example Question #13 : Reproductive System

Which of these occurs at the midpoint of the menstrual cycle, between the follicular and luteal phases? 

Possible Answers:

Gestation

Ovulation

Fertilization

Menstruation

Cessation of progesterone production

Correct answer:

Ovulation

Explanation:

At the midpoint of the 28-day menstrual cycle, ovulation occurs. This involves the realease of one mature egg from the follicle in one ovary. Fertilization refers to the fusion of the nuclei of a sperm and an egg, resulting in a zygote. Menstruation occurs at the beginning of the menstrual cycle, around days 2-7. Gestation refers to the period marked by pregnancy. During the time of ovulation, progesterone levels are gradually rising, preparing the uterus for reception of the implanted zygote.

Example Question #14 : Reproductive System

Testosterone is synthesized by __________.

Possible Answers:

leydig cells

sertoli cells

the scrotum

spermatic cord

seminal vesicles

Correct answer:

leydig cells

Explanation:

Testosterone is synthesized by Leydig cells. Sertoli cells aid in spermatogenesis. The seminal vesicles secrete semen, which comprises most of the seminal fluid. The scrotum is the skin pouch which contains the testes. The spermatic cord contains the vas deferens, nerves, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels. Note that Leydig cells are sometimes called interstitial cells.

Example Question #15 : Reproductive System

The first 14 days of the menstrual cycle are known as the __________, while last 14 days are known as the __________.

Possible Answers:

ovulatory phase . . . luteal phase

follicular phase . . . menstrual phase

luteal phase . . . follicular phase

follicular phase . . . luteal phase

ovulatory phase . . . follicular phase

Correct answer:

follicular phase . . . luteal phase

Explanation:

The menstrual phase is divided into two halves—the first 14 days are involved in follicular maturation, and is thus known as the follicular phase, while the last 14 days involve the degneration of the corpus luteum, and is thus known as the luteal phase. Ovulation occurs around day 14, but there is no ovulatory phase. Menstruation normally occurs during the first 2-7 days of the cycle, during the follicular phase.

Example Question #3 : Understanding Reproductive Functions

Which hormone maintains the corpus luteum during pregnancy?

Possible Answers:

LH

Progesterone

Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)

FSH

Estradiol

Correct answer:

Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)

Explanation:

The corpus luteum is what remains of the folliclle after ovulation. If the egg is fertilized, the corpus luteum will be maintained due to the HCG from the embryo. HCG mimics the action of LH, maintaining the corpus luteum, which keeps producing progesterone, which is necessary for maintenance of the endometrium of the uterus. LH and FSH are important in the menstrual cycle and estradiol an important hormone involved in female reproductive health and function. Most pregnancy tests detect HCG in the urine.

Example Question #17 : Reproductive System

Which is the correct sequence through which sperm leave the male body during ejaculation?

Possible Answers:

Testes  vas deferens  epididymis  urethra

Epididymis  testes  vas deferens  urethra

Testes  epididymis  vas deferens  urethra

Vas deferens  urethra  epididymis  testes

Vas deferens  testes  epididymis  urethra

Correct answer:

Testes  epididymis  vas deferens  urethra

Explanation:

Sperm are produced in the testes. They then travel into the epididymis where they mature and are stored. During the time of ejaculation, the sperm are expelled into the right and left vasa deferentia which join and form the urethra, through which they leave the body.

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