High School Biology : Understanding Replication Regulation

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for High School Biology

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Example Questions

Example Question #24 : Dna, Rna, And Proteins

Which enzyme is responsible for forming a new strand of DNA?

Possible Answers:

DNA Polymerase

Amylase

RNA Polymerase

Synthase

Helicase

Correct answer:

DNA Polymerase

Explanation:

DNA polymerase is responsible for joining nucleotide subunits to form the new strand of DNA during replication. In contrast, RNA polymerase will join nucleotides to form strands of RNA during transcription. Amylase is found in saliva and catalyzes the breakdown of starch and carbohydrates. Synthases are a class of enzyme that act as catalysts for joining two molecules. Helicase uncoils double-stranded DNA, allowing the formation of the replication fork. 

Example Question #25 : Dna, Rna, And Proteins

When considering the regulatory processes behind DNA replication, what is special about chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes?

Possible Answers:

Replication occurs independently from the cell cycle.

There is no well-defined cycle of replication for chloroplasts or mitochondria, and their DNA instead replicates continuously.

The cell checkpoints in these types of replication are only limited by available fuel.

There are no regulatory checkpoints on these types of replication.

Cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases are strengthened in these types of replication.

Correct answer:

Replication occurs independently from the cell cycle.

Explanation:

Replication of chloroplast cells in plants and mitochondrial DNA in advanced cells occurs independently of the cell cycle, follwing instead the process known as D-Loop Replication.

Example Question #26 : Dna, Rna, And Proteins

To what process does the term "transcription" refer?

Possible Answers:

Transcription is the process of rRNA building ribosomes

Transcription is the process of "writing" proteins from RNA

Transcription is the process of tRNA carrying amino acids to a polypeptide being built

Transcription is the process of "writing" proteins from DNA

Transcription is the process of "writing" RNA from DNA

Correct answer:

Transcription is the process of "writing" RNA from DNA

Explanation:

The conversion of DNA into RNA is known as transcription. A DNA template is read to produce a complementary RNA strand.

The conversion of RNA to protein is described by translation, and is completed with the help of mRNA. You cannot transition from DNA straight to protein without these intermediary steps. tRNA is used to carrying amino acids to a growing polypeptide, and rRNA is used to build ribosomes, but these processes are not considered parts of transcription.

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