High School Biology : Understanding Oogenesis

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for High School Biology

varsity tutors app store varsity tutors android store

Example Questions

← Previous 1

Example Question #1 : Understanding Oogenesis

How is oogenesis different from spermatogenesis? 

Possible Answers:

One uses meiosis, while the other uses mitosis

Only spermatogenesis involves crossing over

Oogenesis results in one egg cell, while spermatogenesis results in four sperm cells

Oogenesis results in a diploid germ cell, while sperm cells are haploid

Correct answer:

Oogenesis results in one egg cell, while spermatogenesis results in four sperm cells

Explanation:

When a primary oogonium undergoes meiosis, it will only result in one viable germ cell, or egg. The other smaller cells are called polar bodies and typically disappear following division. Spermatogenesis will result in four separate sperm cells, each capable of producing offspring.

Both eggs and sperm are haploid, and both processes can involve crossing over during meiosis.

Example Question #22 : Meiosis

Which of the following best defines oogenesis?

Possible Answers:

The inability to form egg cells during meiosis

The formation of egg cells during anaphase

The inability to form egg cells during mitosis

The formation of egg cells during prophase

The formation of egg cells through meiosis

Correct answer:

The formation of egg cells through meiosis

Explanation:

Gametes are formed during the process of meiosis. Oogenesis is the process by which the female games are produced, which occurs in the ovary. The product of oogenesis is one mature egg from one primary oocyte; this occurs about once every four weeks in humans.

Example Question #2 : Understanding Oogenesis

When would an extra copy of chromosome 21 be introduced into the genetic pool?

Possible Answers:

During meiosis

During fertilization

During mitosis

During implantation

During early cell divisions in the embryo

Correct answer:

During meiosis

Explanation:

Down's syndrome is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21. This trisomy is a result of nondisjunction, which can occur during either meiosis I or meiosis II. Nondisjunction most often occurs during anaphase I of meiosis. Note that most other trisomies and monosomies are lethal.

Example Question #24 : Meiosis

Many secondary processes enable the primary processes of human gametogenesis to occur smoothly. One important secondary process during human oogenesis is ovarian follicle atresia.

Which of the following is closest to the definition of "ovarian follicle atresia"?

Possible Answers:

The process by which estradiol and luteinizing hormone interact in a positive feedback loop, severely heightening the level of LH and developing the secondary follicle into a tertiary follicle.

The process by which all but one primary ovarian follicle degenerates and are absorbed back into the ovary, allowing the surviving follicle body to develop into a corpus luteum following ovulation.

The process by which a follicle develops into a corpus luteum following ovulation, which will later release the hormone progesterone into the body.

The process by which the dominant follicle releases large amounts of estradiol during the late follicular phase, preparing the follicle for the LH surge.

The process by which FSH triggers the development of primary follicles into secondary follicles which are ready for ovulation.

Correct answer:

The process by which all but one primary ovarian follicle degenerates and are absorbed back into the ovary, allowing the surviving follicle body to develop into a corpus luteum following ovulation.

Explanation:

Follicular atresia is a hormone-controlled, apoptotic (cell-suicide) process by which immature follicles degenerate and are resorbed into the main body of the ovary, leaving one out of typically 20 primary follicles standing as a secondary follicle. This process, moderated by follicle stimulating hormone and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF), assists the body in forming the corpus luteum out of the remaining follicle following ovulation, as the body would otherwise not be able to generate enough progesterone to continue the process.

Example Question #25 : Meiosis

Which of the following choices correctly lists the order of development of the listed cell types of oogenesis in humans?

Primary oocyte

Secondary oocyte

Oogonium 

Ovum

Possible Answers:

Secondary oocyte, primary oocyte, oogonium, and ovum

Ovum, primary oocyte, secondary oocyte, and oogonium

Primary oocyte, secondary oocyte, oogonium, and ovum

Oogonium, primary oocyte, secondary oocyte, and ovum

Oogonium, secondary oocyte, primary oocyte, and ovum

Correct answer:

Oogonium, primary oocyte, secondary oocyte, and ovum

Explanation:

Oogonia are the primordial oocytes formed inside females either during or shortly after birth. At this time, the formation of primary oocytes occurs during dictyate, which lasts until the surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) just before the onset of puberty. After menarche, a few of these cells will further develop each period into secondary oocytes, which are halted in metaphase II until fertilization. At the end of meiosis II, both polar bodies created to discard extra haploid sets of chromosomes disintegrate, leaving behind the oocyte which can then mature into an ovum. Thus, the correct order is the following order: oogonium, primary oocyte, secondary oocyte, and ovum.

Example Question #26 : Meiosis

What is the female gamete called?

Possible Answers:

Ovum

Sperm

Uterus

Ovary

Zygote

Correct answer:

Ovum

Explanation:

The female gamete is called the ovum (ova, plural). A zygote is the cell that results from fertilization occurs between two gametes. An ovary is the female reproductive organ that produces ova. Sperm is the male gamete. The uterus is the organ where the fetus develops.

Example Question #3 : Understanding Oogenesis

Each ovum is __________, containing __________, set(s) of chromosomes.

Possible Answers:

diploid . . . one

haploid . . . one

polyploid . . . four

haploid . . . two

diploid . . . two

Correct answer:

haploid . . . one

Explanation:

After completing meiosis II, ova are haploid cells containing one chromosome. Haploid cells have half the number of chromosomes (n) as a diploid cell. Haploid cells like ova and sperm will merge during fertilization and form a diploid cell with two complete sets of chromosomes (2n).

Example Question #4 : Understanding Oogenesis

The release of a secondary oocyte from the ovary is known as __________.

Possible Answers:

ovulation

gametogenesis

meiosis

oogenesis

menstruation

Correct answer:

ovulation

Explanation:

The release of the secondary oocyte from the ovaries is ovulation. This occurs after the follicles surrounding the oocyte mature and rupture, releasing the cell to be available for fertilization. Menstruation occurs after ovulation - if the ovum fails to be fertilized, the uterus will shed its lining. Oogenesis, the creation of an ovum, is the female form of gametogenesis (creation of a gamete). Meiosis is the process of cell division in which the number of chromosomes is halved.

Example Question #5 : Understanding Oogenesis

Prior to the onset of menstruation, the development of primary oocytes is paused in what phase of meiosis?

Possible Answers:

Anaphase I

Prophase I

Metaphase II

Metaphase I

Prophase II

Correct answer:

Prophase I

Explanation:

Primary oocytes enter meiosis I and replicate their genomes, but they do not make their first meiotic division. They remain in prophase I until a female begins her first menstrual cycle. Then, each month, one primary oocyte resumes the process of meiotic division.

Example Question #32 : Meiosis

After a follicle matures and a primary oocyte completes its first meiotic division, the primary oocyte becomes __________.

Possible Answers:

a secondary oocyte

a fetus

an embryo

an ovary

a gamete

Correct answer:

a secondary oocyte

Explanation:

A primary oocyte becomes a secondary oocyte when the follicle grows and matures and the primary oocyte completes its first meiotic division. Shortly after, the follicle will rupture and release the secondary oocyte to be fertilized. Later, after the oocyte develops into an ovum and is fertilized, it becomes a diploid zygote, which develops into an embryo through the process of mitosis. The ovary is the reproductive organ where the ova are produced, and a gamete is the haploid cell (ovum or sperm) that is fertilized and forms a zygote.

← Previous 1
Learning Tools by Varsity Tutors

Incompatible Browser

Please upgrade or download one of the following browsers to use Instant Tutoring: