High School Biology : Understanding Innate Immunity

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for High School Biology

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Example Questions

Example Question #8 : Immune System

Which of the following is not considered a part of the innate immune response?

Possible Answers:

Antibodies

Stomach acid

Phagocytic cells

The skin

Correct answer:

Antibodies

Explanation:

Innate immunity is defined as the general protection mechanisms from pathogens. Innate immunity will be present even when the body has not seen a specific pathogen. Antibodies are highly specific for one particular antigen, and only develop in the body after previous exposure to a pathogen. As a result, it is not considered innate. Instead, antibodies are considered a hallmark of adaptive immunity.

Physical barriers (like the skin), chemical barriers (like stomach acid), and non-specific immune cells (like phagocytes) help to protect against all pathogens, regardless of the type of pathogen or previous exposure.

Example Question #1 : Understanding Innate Immunity

Which type of immunity is not pathogen-specific and does not create memory cells?

Possible Answers:

Innate immunity

Active immunity

Acquired immunity

Cell-mediated immunity

Humoral immunity

Correct answer:

Innate immunity

Explanation:

Innate immunity is non-specific immunity linked to general defenses in the body. These immune defenses include inflammation and phagocytosis, which are not determined by the specific responses of B- or T-lymphocytes. Physical barriers, such as tight junctions in the skin and the acidity of the stomach and vaginal canal, also act as innate immune mechanisms.

Acquired and active immunity only result from a prior exposure to an antigen. Antibodies are produced by B-cells. Cell-mediated immunity involves the regulatory and cytotoxic activites of T-cells during the specific immune response. Humoral immunity is the term used to describe the protective activities of antibodies against infection by common microorganisms. 

Example Question #10 : Immune System

Which of the following is NOT an aspect of the innate immune system?

Possible Answers:

Stomach acid

Mucous 

Skin

Antibodies in the blood

Enzymes in sweat, tears, and saliva that kill bacteria

Correct answer:

Antibodies in the blood

Explanation:

The innate immune system is a general defense against infections. Antibodies are very specific to the type of infection they can fight. Thus antibodies are considered specific defense.

Example Question #2 : Understanding Innate Immunity

Which of the following is not a part of the innate (non-specific) immune system?

Possible Answers:

Skin

Natural killer cells

Leukocytes

Mucus

Lymphocytes

Correct answer:

Lymphocytes

Explanation:

Lymphocytes are part of the adaptive (specific) immune system, which monitors and dispatches in response to specific threats. The adaptive immune response utilizes antibody secretions from B-lymphocytes to target specific pathogens for elimination.

In contrast, the innate immune system is largely designed to prevent entry and propagation of non-specific pathogens. It is composed of barriers (such as skin and mucus linings) as well as non-specific immune cells (such as macrophages and natural killer cells).

Example Question #3 : Understanding Innate Immunity

Which of the following is NOT a part of innate immunity?

Possible Answers:

The skin, which helps keep diseases out of the body

Lymphocytes that destroy known threats to the body

Mast cells that produce a response to infection or injury

Immune "memory" which allows the body to recognize threats again in the future

Correct answer:

Immune "memory" which allows the body to recognize threats again in the future

Explanation:

The innate immune system is the part of your immune system that responds to threats almost immediately. It contains all the aspects which react to all threats and is generally seen as less complex than the adaptive immune system. The adaptive immune system includes aspects that respond to specific threats and develop memory to fight threats later on.

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