High School Biology : Understanding Hormones and the Excretory System

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for High School Biology

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Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Understanding Hormones And The Excretory System

What is the function of antidiuretic hormone (ADH)?

Possible Answers:

ADH makes the collecting duct impermeable to water, diluting the urine

ADH makes the collecting duct permeable to water, concentrating the urine

ADH makes the collecting duct impermeable to water, concentrating the urine

ADH makes the collecting duct permeable to water, diluting the urine

Correct answer:

ADH makes the collecting duct permeable to water, concentrating the urine

Explanation:

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is useful if an individual becomes dehydrated. When dehydrated, ADH will make the collecting ducts permeable to water. This allows water to be reabsorbed into the body from the filtrate in the kidneys. By moving water from the filtrate to the body, the urine becomes more concentrated and the body retains water. This process helps to prevent dehydration.

Example Question #2 : Understanding Hormones And The Excretory System

Which of the following is produced by the anterior pituitary gland?

Possible Answers:

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

Oxytocin

Thyroid hormone

Calcitonin

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

Correct answer:

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

Explanation:

Oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) are both produced by the hypothalamus and released from the posterior pituitary. In women, oxytocin is important during childbirth because it regulates uterine contractions. It also acts as a hormone in the brain and is important to sexual arousal, recognition, and trust. Antidiuretic hormone, also known as vasopressin, is an important hormone that induces increased water reabsorption in the kidney to increase blood volume.

Thyroid hormone (thyroxine or T4) and calcitonin are both produced in the thyroid. Thyroid hormone is extremely important in the regulation of metabolism. Calcitonin in the bones inhibits the activity of osteoclasts, which break down bone matrix. This decreases the amount of calcium in the blood. In the kidney, calcitonin inhibits the reabsorption of calcium. Thyroid-stimulating hormone is used to stimulate the thyroid to release thyroid hormone, and is produced by the anterior pituitary.

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is secreted by the anterior pituitary gland and plays an important role in reproduction, growth, and development, particularly during puberty. 

Example Question #3 : Understanding Hormones And The Excretory System

Which of the following is false about the excretory system?

Possible Answers:

There is no energy expended in the excretory system; all processes involve passive transport due to concentration gradients

The three processes for producing the concentrated urine through the nephron are filtration, secretion, and reabsorption

The function of the excretory system is to maintain osmotic balance and remove nitrogenous wastes like urea

The kidney filters blood to ultimately create urine and excrete ~500mL per day

Correct answer:

There is no energy expended in the excretory system; all processes involve passive transport due to concentration gradients

Explanation:

The nephrons of the kidney serve to balance and concentrate the filtrate in order to generate urine and eliminate nitrogenous wastes, while conserving valuable nutrients and ions. Filtration separates fluids from the cells of the blood in Bowman's capsule. Reabsorption refers to the process by which particulates and ions are removed from the filtrate and returned to the blood, while secretion refers to the addition of compounds from the blood into the filtrate. These processes are critical to establishing the proper urine composition.

While much of reabsorption and secretion occurs passively due to the manipulation of ion gradients, it is important to note that the generation of ion gradients usually requires active transport and the expenditure of energy. As such, the excretory system does utilize energy and involves active transport.

Example Question #2 : Understanding Hormones And The Excretory System

What four parts of the nephron involve active transport for either reabsorption or secretion?

Possible Answers:

Proximal convoluted tubule, ascending loop of Henle, descending loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule

Proximal convoluted tubule, ascending loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule, collecting duct

Collecting duct, Bowman’s capsule, distal convoluted tubule, descending loop of Henle

Collecting duct, descending loop of Henle, proximal convoluted tubule, Bowman’s capsule

Correct answer:

Proximal convoluted tubule, ascending loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule, collecting duct

Explanation:

Filtrate that enters the renal corpuscle in Bowman’s capsule is forced in due to hydrostatic blood pressure; this is a passive mechanism. However, as the filtrate is reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT), some molecules exit the tubule via active transport mechanisms. Later, as filtrate travels through the descending limb of the loop of Henle, water moves out passively with its concentration gradient, as do sodium ions in the thin ascending limb. In the thick ascending limb, the concentration of salt has increased in the medulla, causing salt to exit the tubule via active transport mechanisms. Finally, in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct, water reabsorption occurs passively through aquaporins, but some reabsorption and secretion may occur through active transport.

Active transport occurs in the proximal convoluted tubule, ascending loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule, and collecting duct.

Example Question #5 : Understanding Hormones And The Excretory System

Which of the following hormones is secreted by the juxtaglomerular cells of the kidney?

Possible Answers:

Renin

Adrenaline

Parathyroid hormone

Aldosterone

Angiotensin

Correct answer:

Renin

Explanation:

Renin is released from these cells in response to decreased arteriole blood pressure. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is then activated to maintain blood pressure by various ways including stimulating thirst, reabsorbing sodium in the kidney, and increasing vasopressin release.

Example Question #6 : Understanding Hormones And The Excretory System

What effects does aldosterone have?

Possible Answers:

Decreases blood pressure by increased sodium retention and decreased blood volume

Decreases blood pressure by increased water output in the form of urine

Increases blood pressure by increased sodium retention and increasing blood volume

Increases blood pressure by decreased sodium retention and increased blood volume

Decreases blood pressure by decreased sodium retention and decreased blood volume

Correct answer:

Increases blood pressure by increased sodium retention and increasing blood volume

Explanation:

Aldosterone is released by the adrenal glands and works to increase sodium retention which increases water retention and thereby increases blood volume to increase blood pressure. If sodium flows back into the cells from the kidney tubules (so that it is not secreted as urine), water also flows back as an osmotic effect. Additionally, aldosterone also stimulates thirst and decreases vasopressin secretion, all to increase blood volume to increase blood pressure.

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