High School Biology : Understanding Glands

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for High School Biology

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Example Questions

Example Question #746 : High School Biology

Which of the following details is not true concerning hormones?

Possible Answers:

Hormones act on receptors all throughout the body

Hormones attach to receptors in order to function

Hormones act very quickly in the body

Hormones are released into the bloodstream

Correct answer:

Hormones act very quickly in the body

Explanation:

When thinking of hormones, it helps to remember that they are generally slow acting, affect all types of tissues at once, and can last for long periods of time in the body. As a result, hormones would not be described as fast-acting in the body.

In contrast, neurotransmitters are generally considered fast-acting, as they are released to a small, targeted area and elicit an immediate response.

Example Question #747 : High School Biology

Which of the following hormones is NOT released by the pituitary gland?

Possible Answers:

Follicle-stimulating hormone

Thyroid-stimulating hormone

Oxytocin

Calcitonin

Correct answer:

Calcitonin

Explanation:

The pituitary gland is composed of an anterior and a posterior pituitary lobe, both of which are responsible for the secretion of various hormones.

The anterior pituitary secretes thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin, luteinizing hormone (LH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and growth hormone (GH). It can help to remember these hormones with the pneumonic "FLAT PEG."

The posterior pituitary secretes oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH). Antidiuretic hormone is also known as vasopressin.

Calcitonin is secreted by the thyroid gland, not the pituitary.

Example Question #2 : Understanding Glands

Which of the following is true about endocrine glands?

Possible Answers:

Sweat glands are examples of endocrine glands.

They may only secrete their products into the bloodstream.

None of the other answers is true.

They may secrete their products either into the blood or outside the body.

Some endocrine glands' products are secreted into the gastrointestinal tract to aid in breaking down food.

Correct answer:

They may only secrete their products into the bloodstream.

Explanation:

Endocrine glands only secrete their products into the blood. Sweat glands secrete sweat outside the body and never touch the blood. Similarly, anything inside the gastrointestinal tract is technically outside the body! For something (broken-down food molecules, water, salts etc.) to enter the body, it must be absorbed across the walls of the gastrointestinal tract. Remember, humans are like hollow cylinders in the sense that we have a tube from mouth to anus, which is considered outside the body. 

Example Question #1 : Understanding Glands

Which of the following is not an endocrine organ?

Possible Answers:

Uterus

Parathyroid

Thyroid

Pineal body

Ovary

Correct answer:

Uterus

Explanation:

Endocrine glands are glands of the endocrine system that secrete hormones (their products) directly into the blood rather than through a duct (exocrine organs use ducts). The major glands of the endocrine system include: adrenal glands, hypothalamus, parathyroid glands, thyroid gland, testes, ovaries, pancreas, pituitary gland, and pineal gland. The hypothalamus and pituitary gland are considered neuroendocrine organs. The pineal gland is located in the brain and secretes the hormone melatonin, which helps regulate the circadian (sleep-wake) cycle, especially before sleep.

Example Question #750 : High School Biology

Which of the following is not a hormone released by the adrenal cortex?

Possible Answers:

Vasopressin

Testosterone

Androgens

Cortisol

Aldosterone

Correct answer:

Vasopressin

Explanation:

The adrenal cortex has three zones. The first zone releases aldosterone, the second releases cortisol, and the third releases androgens, which includes testosterone. Vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone) is synthesized by the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary. 

Example Question #2 : Understanding Glands

Catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine) are secreted by the __________.

Possible Answers:

kidney

thyroid gland

thymus

parathyroid gland

adrenal medulla

Correct answer:

adrenal medulla

Explanation:

The adrenal medulla is very different from the adrenal cortex and has a different origin as well. It is made of chromaffin cells, which are neuroendocrine cells, and release catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine), in response to sympathetic stimulation. 

Example Question #3 : Understanding Glands

The adrenal gland has 3 layers, each layer secreting its own specific hormone. Which hormone from the anterior pituitary is responsible for stimulating the adrenal glands? 

Possible Answers:

Vasopressin

Prolactin

Oxytocin 

Adrenocorticotropic hormone

Correct answer:

Adrenocorticotropic hormone

Explanation:

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) helps stimulate the release of cortisol from the adrenal glands. Vasopressin and oxytocin are produced by the hypothalamus and secreted by the posterior pituitary. Growth hormone and prolactin have no direct effect on the adrenal glands. 

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