High School Biology : Understanding Excretory Organs

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for High School Biology

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Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Understanding Excretory Organs

Where is the majority of water absorbed back into the body?

Possible Answers:

In the small intestine

In the bladder

In the liver

In the stomach

In the large intestine

Correct answer:

In the large intestine

Explanation:

The large intestine is responsible for further absorption of water and any remaining nutrients that the small intestine did not absorb. Also, the large intestine is responsible for the formation of fecal matter.

Example Question #2 : Understanding Excretory Organs

A researcher is analyzing an organ that stores urine until it is excreted. What can the researcher conclude about this organ?

Possible Answers:

The identity of the organ is bladder and it is surrounded by skeletal muscle.

The identity of the organ is bladder and it is surrounded by smooth muscle.

The identity of the organ is kidney and it is surrounded by skeletal muscle.

The identity of the organ is kidney and it is surrounded by smooth muscle.

Correct answer:

The identity of the organ is bladder and it is surrounded by smooth muscle.

Explanation:

The question states that the organ stores urine. Recall that bladder stores urine until excretion; therefore, the researcher must be analyzing a bladder. Smooth muscle and skeletal muscle are both muscle types found in the human body. Smooth muscle is involuntary, whereas skeletal muscle is voluntary. Recall that the muscle surrounding the bladder functions to empty the bladder. We cannot control bladder emptying; therefore, the muscle surrounding the bladder is involuntary and is classified as smooth muscle.

Example Question #3 : Understanding Excretory Organs

Which of the following is true regarding the excretory systems in males and females? 

Possible Answers:

Males have uteri and females have prostates as part of their excretory systems.

The differences in individuals' excretory systems depend on the ages of the individuals compared, not the individuals' genders.

Both male and female excretory systems are made up of the same structures.

Males have prostates and females have uteri as part of their excretory systems.

Correct answer:

Both male and female excretory systems are made up of the same structures.

Explanation:

The excretory system for urine consists of the following components: kidneys, ureter, bladder, and urethra. These components are the same in both males and females. The urine is made in the kidneys. It exits the kidneys and travels through the ureter, bladder, and urethra, after which it is excreted.

The uterus is only found in females and the prostate is only found in males; however, these are reproductive structures and are not part of the excretory system. Age does not determine the structures of the excretory system. A teenager and an eighty-year old will have the same excretory system.

Example Question #4 : Understanding Excretory Organs

Consider the following excretory organs.

            1. Bladder

            2. Ureter

            3. Urethra

Which of the following is the correct order of urine flow from kidneys?

Possible Answers:

3, 1, 2

2, 3, 1

1, 3, 2

2, 1, 3

Correct answer:

2, 1, 3

Explanation:

Kidneys are bilateral organs that function to filter metabolic waste products from the blood. These waste products are processed and excreted via urine. Once it is formed in the kidneys, urine exits via the ureter. The ureter carries the urine to the bladder, where it is stored until it can be excreted. Once the bladder is full, smooth muscles surrounding the bladder contract and push urine out of the bladder and into the urethra. The urethra is the last stop for urine, after which it is excreted.

Example Question #114 : Tissues, Organs, And Organ Systems

Which of the following is true regarding the excretory system?

            I. It functions to remove metabolic wastes via urine and feces.

            II. It functions to maintain homeostasis.

            III. Renal failure can alter its functions.

Possible Answers:

II and III

I

I, II, and III

I and II

Correct answer:

I, II, and III

Explanation:

The excretory system functions to remove waste from the body. This can happen via two pathways. First, kidneys filter metabolic wastes from the blood and excrete them via urine. Second, organs of the GI tract (such as the liver, small intestine, and colon) filter toxic substances and waste products from food and excrete it via feces; therefore, the excretory system functions to remove waste via urine and feces.

Another main function of the excretory system is to maintain homeostasis. To maintain homeostasis, the kidneys have the ability to sense changes in certain substances in the blood and can excrete them accordingly. For example, if there is an increase in the concentration of bicarbonate ions in the blood, the kidneys will sense this change and increase the excretion of bicarbonate ions via urine. This will bring the concentration of bicarbonate ions back to normal and will maintain homeostasis.

The word "renal" refers to the kidneys. Since it plays a huge role in excretion, kidney failure can alter excretory system functions.

Example Question #5 : Understanding Excretory Organs

The urinary bladder is made of a specialized type of epithelium that is designed to stretch. 

Which type of tissue is designed to stretch?

Possible Answers:

Transitional epithelium

Columnar epithelium

Cuboidal epithelium

Stratified squamous epithelium

Simple squamous epithelium 

Correct answer:

Transitional epithelium

Explanation:

Transitional epithelium consists of multiple layers of epithelial cells which can contract and expand. When the cells are not stretched they appear cuboidal with a domed apex, however once stretched the the tissue compresses and the cells appear flattened. This type of tissue is found in the urinary bladder, the ureters, the superior urethra, and gland ducts of the prostrate.  

Example Question #116 : Tissues, Organs, And Organ Systems

Which of the following is not a function of the kidney?

Possible Answers:

Regulate blood pressure

Maintain blood volume

Regulate blood pH

Remove waste products from the body

Excrete proteins that are not needed by the body

Correct answer:

Excrete proteins that are not needed by the body

Explanation:

All of these are functions of the kidney except for excretion of proteins. In fact, the kidney should never secrete protein or glucose (sugars) unless there is a disease state present. For example, in diabetics who have damaged kidneys (diabetic nephropathy), there is protein in the urine. To a degree, the amount of protein in the urine determines how bad their kidney disease is.

Example Question #21 : Excretory System

Which of the following should not be found in urine?

Possible Answers:

Potassium

Chloride

Urea

Glucose

Sodium

Correct answer:

Glucose

Explanation:

Glucose is initially filtered at the glomerulus but then all reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubule. If it appears in the urine, it is termed glucosuria and indicates that the patient has diabetes (impaired insulin secretion or sensitivity that causes elevated levels of glucose in the blood).

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