High School Biology : Understanding Divisions of the Nervous System

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for High School Biology

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Example Questions

Example Question #12 : Organs And Organ Systems

Which of the following is an effect of the sympathetic nervous system?

Possible Answers:

Constricts bronchi

Pupil constriction

Increased heart rate

Salivation

Stimulated digestion

Correct answer:

Increased heart rate

Explanation:

The sympathetic nervous system is responsible for stress responses, while the parasympathetic nervous system is responsible for resting responses. The sympathetic nervous system causes increased heart rate, pupil dilation, suppressed digestion, inhibited salivation, and dilated bronchi.

Example Question #13 : Organs And Organ Systems

What is the name of the structure on a neuron that receives eletrical signals from other neurons and cells?

Possible Answers:

Dendrite

Soma

Axon

Axon hillock

Correct answer:

Dendrite

Explanation:

The most basic anatomy for a neuron involves three structures: a soma, a dendrite, and an axon. The dendrite receives an electrical impulse and sends it to the cell body, or soma. The axon will then send the action potential towards its synapse with another neuron. The axon hillock is a wider region of the axon where the soma and axon join together.

While every neuron will have only one soma and one axon, some neurons have several dendrites. This means that a neuron can receive information from several different locations through different dendrites, but can only send it in one direction along the single axon.

Example Question #14 : Organs And Organ Systems

Innervation of the parasympathetic nervous system will NOT result in which of the following responses?

Possible Answers:

Increased blood flow to excretory organs

Decreased heart rate

Increased blood flow to skeletal muscles

Increased blood flow to digestive organs

Correct answer:

Increased blood flow to skeletal muscles

Explanation:

The parasympathetic nervous system is responsible for the "rest and digest" functions of the body. The sympathetic nervous system is associated with "fight or flight" responses in the body. Increased blood flow to skeletal muscles is a common result of the sympathetic nervous system being stimulated, not the parasympathetic nervous system.

Example Question #1 : Understanding Divisions Of The Nervous System

The autonomic nervous system is a subdivision of which division of the nervous system?

Possible Answers:

The somatic nervous system

The sympathetic nervous system

The peripheral nervous system

The central nervous system

Correct answer:

The peripheral nervous system

Explanation:

The nervous system has two major divisions: the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The peripheral nervous system is further divided into the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. The autonomic nervous system can then be divided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches.

General: Central and Peripheral

Peripheral: Somatic and Autonomic

Autonomic: Sympathetic and Parasympathetic

Example Question #16 : Organs And Organ Systems

If the vagus nerve is responsible for slowing down the heart rate, in which division of the nervous system would it be found?

Possible Answers:

Sympathetic nervous system

Somatic nervous system

Central nervous system

Parasympathetic nervous system

Correct answer:

Parasympathetic nervous system

Explanation:

The vagus nerve is responsible for slowing down the heart rate. It also increases digestive activity. Knowing this, we can conclude that the vagus nerve has a "rest and digest" function in the body. This means that it is part of the parasympathetic nervous system.

The sympathetic nervous system is responsible for stress responses, or "fight or flight." The somatic nervous system is under voluntary control, while the autonomic nervous system is involuntary. Both the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions fall under the autonomic umbrella. The central nervous system includes only the brain and spinal cord.

Example Question #17 : Organs And Organ Systems

In a reflex arc, which part of the pathway serves as the integrating center?

Possible Answers:

Spinal cord

Efferent neuron

Brain

Muscle

Afferent neuron

Correct answer:

Spinal cord

Explanation:

Reflex arcs are unique neural pathways due to the fact they are constructed to cause voluntary muscles to move without a stimulus being integrated in the brain. Instead, the integration of the stimulus occurs in the spinal cord, where an efferent signal is immediately created towards the voluntary muscle. 

Example Question #18 : Organs And Organ Systems

Which of the following divisions of the nervous system is responsible for the "fight or flight" response?

Possible Answers:

Central nervous system

Enteric nervous system

Peripheral nervous system

Parasympathetic nervous system

Sympathetic nervous system

Correct answer:

Sympathetic nervous system

Explanation:

The sympathetic nervous system is responsible for the "fight or flight" response. The parasympathetic nervous system does the opposite (rest and digest). The enteric nervous system helps with digestion. The remaining two answer choices are too broad and do not answer the question as well as the sympathetic nervous system. Note that the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems are branches of the autonomic nervous system, which itself is a branch of the parasympathetic nervous system.

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