High School Biology : Understanding Cells of the Immune System

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for High School Biology

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Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Understanding Cells Of The Immune System

What cell is responsible for releasing free antibodies into the bloodstream? 

Possible Answers:

Neutrophils

T-lymphocytes

B-lymphocytes

Plasma cells

Correct answer:

Plasma cells

Explanation:

Each B-lymphocyte cell is responsible for creating one specific antibody. If the B-lymphocyte's antibody matches to the right antigen, the lymphocyte will differentiate into a plasma cell. Plasma cells release free antibodies into the bloodstream. The transition process from B-cell to plasma cell is mediated by helper T-cells.

Example Question #2 : Understanding Cells Of The Immune System

Which type of cell is part of adaptive immunity?

Possible Answers:

Monocytes

T-cell lymphocytes

Neutrophils

Macrophages

Correct answer:

T-cell lymphocytes

Explanation:

Adaptive immunity involves immune cells created due to previously experiencing an infection by a particular pathogen. T-cell lymphocytes mature in the thymus, and recognize a specific antigen. T-cells and B-cells work to produce antibodies against a specific antigen, making them highly specific. This specification is only found in the adaptive immune system

In contrast, the innate immune system can respond to any pathogen, regardless of previous exposure, Neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages are all part of the innate immune response and help with phagocytosis and inflammation.

Example Question #3 : Understanding Cells Of The Immune System

Which of the following are long-lived and provide future immunity against a second invasion by the same antigen?

Possible Answers:

Effector molecules

Macrophages

Helper T-cells

Memory B-cells

B-cells

Correct answer:

Memory B-cells

Explanation:

Memory B-cells are long-lived descendents of B-cells that "remember" their encounter with an antigen and can rapidly respond to reexposure to the same antigen. Helper T-cells stimulate the immune responses by B-cells and cytotoxic T-cells. B-cells produce antibodies. Macrophages destroy invading microbes via phagocytosis and alert other immune cells to the invasion. Effector molecules include histamine and the cell-destroying proteins of cytotoxic T-cells. 

Example Question #4 : Understanding Cells Of The Immune System

If you are fighting an active infection, chances are __________.

Possible Answers:

None of the other answer choices is correct.

your red blood cell count is elevated

your red blood cell count is lowered

your white blood cell count is elevated

your white blood cell count is lowered

Correct answer:

your white blood cell count is elevated

Explanation:

In response to infection, white blood cells multiply so that they can make antibodies against whatever it is your body is fighting off.

Example Question #5 : Understanding Cells Of The Immune System

The human immune system includes several types of specialized cells whose role is to eliminate invaders threatening the health of the body.

A certain immune cell has a certain type of antibody on its surface. When it comes in contact with a pathogen (attacker) that matches its antibodies, the immune cell signals other immune cells to attack the invader and produces more antibodies in order to flag other invaders of the same type. What type of cell is this immune cell?

Possible Answers:

Natural killer cell

Killer T-cell

B-lymphocyte

Helper T-cell

Macrophage

Correct answer:

B-lymphocyte

Explanation:

B-lymphocytes are the immune system's "memory"—once the body is attacked by a certain virus or bacteria, the body produces B-lymphocytes that can specifically recognize that disease. When the B-lymphocyte comes in contact with the disease (recognized by antibodies) it signals killer T-cells and helper T-cells to attack, and creates more antibodies to signal additional T-cells.

Natural killer cells destroy any cells of the human body that have become infected by an attacker. 

Macrophages are a general clean-up cell that sweep up debris, old cells, and sometimes attackers via phagocytosis.

Killer and helper T-cells are both activated by B-lymphocytes

Example Question #6 : Understanding Cells Of The Immune System

Which of the following cells of the immune system release antibodies into the bloodstream?

Possible Answers:

Cytotoxic T cells

T cells

B cells

Helper T cells

Dendritic cells

Correct answer:

B cells

Explanation:

B cells make antibodies that are specific to antigens. Antibodies bind to antigens to tag them for destruction. Cytotoxic T cells recognize and bind antigens and destroy them immediately. Helper T cells recognize antigens presented by antigen-presenting cells such as dendridic cells, and bring them to the attention of B cells, stimulating the B cells to begin making lots of antibodies.

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