GRE Subject Test: Psychology : Types of Memory

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for GRE Subject Test: Psychology

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Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Types Of Memory

A student is cramming for a final examination, and decides to use a cue in the form of a nursery rhyme to remember a particularly hard formula. On the morning of the examination, the student is so nervous that she forgets the nursery rhyme. She cannot correctly answer the questions related to the formula. This scenario is an example of which of the following errors in memory?

Possible Answers:

Encoding error

Declarative error

Recall error

Procedural error

Storage error

Correct answer:

Recall error

Explanation:

A retrieval error—in this case, a feature cue error—in memory is any error, which results from a failure to correctly recall information that was successfully stored in long-term memory. If a cue fails to produce a strong enough association with a word or an interfering event prevents complete remembering of a prior event, then a retrieval error is said to have occurred.

Example Question #2 : Types Of Memory

What is another term for short-term memory that is associated with the storage of small amounts of data without manipulation?

Possible Answers:

Sensory memory

Working memory

Prospective memory

Remote memory

Primary memory

Correct answer:

Primary memory

Explanation:

“Primary memory” is another word for short-term memory. It can hold information for up to 30 seconds without manipulation. On the other hand, “working memory” is a form of short-term memory that involves manipulation of information. “Sensory memory” transmits visual or auditory messages into data that can be stored, and lasts a few seconds. “Remote memory” is a form of long-term memory that lasts two years or more. Last, “prospective memory” is memory associated with future events. 

Example Question #3 : Memory

Which of the following examples best illustrates episodic memory? 

Possible Answers:

A classmate understanding a conversation in Creole

Your little sister spewing off her numbers in Mandarin

Remembering that you got a bike for your 12th birthday. 

Your little brother reciting the alphabet

Your best friend knowing that Christopher Columbus sailed in 1492

Correct answer:

Remembering that you got a bike for your 12th birthday. 

Explanation:

Episodic memory is the conscious memory that deals with remembering personal life events. The only choice that could be described as a personal life event is "remembering that you got a bike for your 12th birthday."

Example Question #3 : Types Of Memory

Alexus is really into the book she’s reading when Carl asks her a question. She stops reading and asks, “what did you say?” As soon as she asks this question she realizes that she can recall Carl's exact words. Which of the following is the reason for her ability to play these words back in her mind?

Possible Answers:

Short-term memory

Semantic memory

Sensory memory

Iconic memory

Echoic memory

Correct answer:

Echoic memory

Explanation:

"Echoic memory" is a component of sensory memory that retains auditory information for a limited amount of time. It is like a holding tank that keeps the sound unprocessed until it is heard again. At this time, the sound is turned into something meaningful. 

Example Question #4 : Types Of Memory

Mnemonic devices such as chunking, method of loci, and other memory aids help increase retention during which of the following memory stages? 

Possible Answers:

Short term memory

Long term memory

Both working memory and short term memory

Working memory

Both working memory and long term memory

Correct answer:

Both working memory and short term memory

Explanation:

Both working and short term types of memory benefit from mnemonic devices, since mnemonic devices are specific aids to help the brain encode information from elementary forms of memory into long term memory. Memory aids are designed to strengthen working and short term memory in an effort to increase long term memory at a later stage.  

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