GRE Subject Test: Psychology : Treatment of Disorders

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Example Question #1 : Treatment Of Disorders

Which of the following mood stabilizers is used for mania and the prevention of future mania in bipolar disorder?

Possible Answers:

Paroxeline (Paxil)

Fluvoxamine (Luvox)

Carbamazepine (Tegretol)

Lithium

Lamotrigine (Lamictal)

Correct answer:

Lithium

Explanation:

Lithium is a salt that is 60% effective in the treatment of the manic episode of bipolar disorder. It acts as a mood stabilizer. Tegretol, Lamictal, Luvrox, and Paxil are all used to treat depression. 

Example Question #2 : Treatment Of Disorders

Antipsychotic medications such as risperidone, olanzapine, and quetiapine are used to treat which of the following?

Possible Answers:

Paranoid personality disorder

Obsessive-compulsive disorder

Posttraumatic stress disorder

Schizophrenia

Bipolar disorder

Correct answer:

Schizophrenia

Explanation:

Schizophrenia is a form of psychosis, and as such is treated with antipsychotic medications such as olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone either singularly or in combination if necessary.

Cognitive behavioral therapy and a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) such as Zoloft, Paxil or Luvox are used to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder. Posttraumatic stress disorder is also treated with SSRIs. Both the manic and depressive stages of bipolar disorder can be treated with the mood stabilizer lithium, while SSRIs can be used to treat the depressive state. Treatment for personality disorders is not successful.

Example Question #3 : Treatment Of Disorders

Diarrhea, drowsiness, loss of appetite, muscle weakness and tembling, and slurred speech are signs of an overdose of which mood stabilizing medication?

Possible Answers:

Luvox

Paxil

Inderal

Zoloft

Lithium

Correct answer:

Lithium

Explanation:

Blood levels of lithium have to be monitored, and signs of overdose include diarrhea, drowsiness, loss of appetite, muscle weakness and trembling, and slurred speech. Lithium is a mood stabilizer used in the treatment of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Paxil, Luvox, and Zoloft are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) used to treat depression. Inderal is a antiadrenergic agent used to treat posttraumatic stress disorder. 

Example Question #2 : Treatment Of Disorders

A psychotherapist determines that a client's depressive symptoms may be the result of their interpretations of events in their life. Her theoretical orientation is most likely based on which of the following?

Possible Answers:

Behaviorist 

Psychoanalytic

Cognitive

Humanistic

Correct answer:

Cognitive

Explanation:

Cognitive therapy, pioneered by psychologists like Albert Ellis and Aaron Beck, emphasizes the power of our thoughts in determining how we feel and behave. According to Beck's negative triad theory, depression is the result of negative thoughts about oneself, one's experiences, and one's future. A depressed person's thinking is often shaped by distortions like overgeneralization (e.g. “I always mess up in interviews”) and selective abstraction, in which one detail of an incident is emphasized and interpreted in the wrong context (e.g. a person focuses on the single negative aspect of a date).

Example Question #5 : Treatment Of Disorders

Which of the following therapies is associated with concepts such as “free association,” “resistance,” and “transference”?

Possible Answers:

Behavioral therapy 

Cognitive therapy

Psychoanalysis 

Biomedical therapy

Correct answer:

Psychoanalysis 

Explanation:

While some of these terms may sound medical, they belong to the techniques and concepts of psychoanalytic therapy.  The founder of psychoanalytic therapy, Sigmund Freud, was a physician. These terms express an unawareness of mental processes. Since cognitive approaches focus on what is immediately conscious and behavioral approaches avoid focusing on thoughts, they can be eliminated as possible answers.

Example Question #6 : Treatment Of Disorders

Which of the following is not one of the “necessary and specific” conditions in Person-Centered Therapy?

Possible Answers:

Empathy

Unconditional positive regard

Genuineness

Comfort

Correct answer:

Comfort

Explanation:

Carl Rogers who is the founder of Person-Centered (sometimes called Client-Centered) therapy took a humanistic approach. Humanism stresses the importance of freedom, autonomy, and the potential to grow healthily. Rogers believed only three ingredients were needed for these goals of self-actualization to be achieved. Namely, they are unconditional positive regard, genuineness, and empathy.

Example Question #7 : Treatment Of Disorders

Which of the following treatments has been extensively researched and found to effectively treat borderline personality disorder?

Possible Answers:

Rational emotive behavior therapy

Cognitive behavioral therapy

Feminist therapy

Dialectical behavior therapy

Logotherapy

Correct answer:

Dialectical behavior therapy

Explanation:

“Dialectical behavior therapy” is the most widely researched treatment for borderline personality disorder. It was developed by Marsha Linehan and includes 4 core components: mindfulness, distress tolerance, emotional regulation, and interpersonal effectiveness. On the other hand, “logotherapy” is an existential therapy developed by Viktor Frankl and focuses on finding meaning in life. “Cognitive behavioral therapy” is an effective treatment for depression and anxiety, and looks at the impact of one's thoughts on emotions and behaviors. “Rational emotive behavior therapy” was developed by Albert Ellis and focuses on modifying irrational thoughts. “Feminist therapy” emphasizes the impact of women's social roles and includes an equal relationship between therapist and client, therapist self-disclosure, and advocating for socio-political change. 

Example Question #8 : Treatment Of Disorders

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is least related to which of the following therapy approaches?

Possible Answers:

Dialectical Behavior Therapy

Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy

Relapse Prevention

Stress inoculation training

Psychoanalysis

Correct answer:

Psychoanalysis

Explanation:

CBT is a form of therapy that combines Aaron Beck's cognitive therapy and techniques taken from traditional behavioral approaches, like classical and operant conditioning. On the other hand, “rational emotive behavior therapy” (REBT) was developed by Albert Ellis and focuses on changing cognitions and behaviors by focusing on irrational thoughts. “Dialectical behavior therapy” (DBT) is a behavioral approach that was developed by Linehan to treat borderline personality disorder. “Relapse prevention” is an approach to addiction developed by Marlatt that views addiction as an overlearned habit. “Stress inoculation training” is an effective behavioral treatment for PTSD that focuses on cognitions, coping skills, and practice. Of all the treatments listed, “psychoanalysis” is the most unrelated. It focuses on the interactions between the id, ego, and superego, with the goal being to increase insight into the unconscious. 

Example Question #9 : Treatment Of Disorders

Cognitive behavior therapy is to changing cognition as psychoanalysis is to __________?

Possible Answers:

resolving a crisis

increasing repression

increasing resistance

modifying behavior

increasing insight

Correct answer:

increasing insight

Explanation:

The goal of cognitive behavior therapy is to modify maladaptive cognitions (thoughts). The goal of traditional psychoanalysis is to "increase insight" into the unconscious. Psychoanalysis may also work to reduce resistance to treatment, and sees resistance as an inevitable part of the process. Psychoanalysis attempts to decrease, rather than increase, the use of defense mechanisms like repression. Psychoanalysis does not directly modify behavior. Crisis intervention focuses on resolving a crisis and restoring previous functioning. 

Example Question #10 : Treatment Of Disorders

Tom has bipolar disorder, type I, with severe manic episodes. His psychiatrist is most likely to prescribe him which of the following?

Possible Answers:

Lithium

Focalin

Seroquel

Antabuse

Lexapro

Correct answer:

Lithium

Explanation:

Lithium helps treat manic episodes, which the question mentioned Tom is struggling with. It is the most common medication for mania. Antabuse is medication for alcoholism, Focalin treats ADHD, Seroquel addresses psychosis, and Lexapro deals with anxiety.

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