GRE Subject Test: Biology : Understanding the Golgi Body and Endoplasmic Reticulum

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for GRE Subject Test: Biology

varsity tutors app store varsity tutors android store

Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Understanding The Golgi Body And Endoplasmic Reticulum

Which of the following is not a common destination for proteins translated by membrane-bound ribosomes?

Possible Answers:

Secretory vesicles

Lysosomes

Plasma membrane

Cytosol

Correct answer:

Cytosol

Explanation:

Membrane-bound ribosomes are found on the surface of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Proteins synthesized by membrane-bound ribosomes are translocated into the endoplasmic reticulum while they are being translated.

These proteins generally undergo modification in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and are packaged into vesicles by the Golgi apparatus. Vesicles from the Golgi apparatus then interface with the plasma membrane of the cell or the membranes of other organelles. Proteins from the interior of the vesicle can be released into the extracellular space or interior of other organelles. Proteins in the membranes of the vesicle become embedded in the plasma membrane of the cell or the organelle.

Proteins synthesized on free ribosomes commonly remain in the cytosol and are modified by different processes than protein synthesized on the rough endoplasmic reticulum.

Example Question #2 : Understanding The Golgi Body And Endoplasmic Reticulum

Which organelle is used to create triglycerides and other lipids?

Possible Answers:

Golgi apparatus

Rough endoplasmic reticulum

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

Ribosome

Correct answer:

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

Explanation:

The smooth endoplasmic reticulum serves several different purposes in the cell, one of which is lipid synthesis. This structure is responsible for producing phospholipids and cholesterol, as well as some steroid hormones and other lipid molecules. It also helps to eliminate foreign toxins from the cell.

The rough endoplasmic reticulum houses ribosomes that synthesize proteins that are destined for the membrane or extracellular environment. The Golgi apparatus is responsible for packaging proteins in vesicles, allowing for transport out of the cell. Ribosomes are involved in protein synthesis (translation).

Learning Tools by Varsity Tutors

Incompatible Browser

Please upgrade or download one of the following browsers to use Instant Tutoring: