GRE Subject Test: Biochemistry, Cell, and Molecular Biology : Help with Stem Cells

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for GRE Subject Test: Biochemistry, Cell, and Molecular Biology

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All GRE Subject Test: Biochemistry, Cell, and Molecular Biology Resources

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Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Help With Stem Cells

Which of the following is an example of a multipotent stem cell differentiation into a terminal cell type?

Possible Answers:

Bone marrow cells giving rise to lymphosites

A zygote giving rise to germ layers

iPS cells giving rise to cardiomyocytes

Endoderm cells giving rise to enterocytes

Correct answer:

Bone marrow cells giving rise to lymphosites

Explanation:

Multipotent cell types can give rise to a small number of cell types but have a restricted fate. This is in contrast to totipotent (zygote) or pluripotent cells (germ layers, iPS (induced pluripotent cells)) which can give rise to many different cell types, some that may make up very different parts of the body.

Example Question #142 : Cell Biology

During asymmetric cell division, cells divide such that the mitotic spindles are oriented perpendicular to the plane on which the cells reside. What types of cells are the original parent cells and how does this affect cell lineage?

Possible Answers:

Asymmetric cell division is proliferation process "parent" stem cells

Asymmetric cell division begins the de-differentiation process from "parent" differentiated cells

Asymmetric cell division begins the differentiation process from "parent" immune cells

Asymmetric cell division begins the differentiation process from "parent" stem cells

Asymmetric cell division is proliferation from "parent" differentiated cells

Correct answer:

Asymmetric cell division begins the differentiation process from "parent" stem cells

Explanation:

The correct answer is that asymmetric cell division begins the differentiation process from "parent" stem cells. Symmetric cell division generates two identical daughter cells that have mitotic spindles oriented parallel to the plane on which the cells reside. However, cells that begin a differentiation lineage undergo asymmetric cell division. The perpendicularity of the mitotic spindle in cells that eventually differentiate contributes to this process. 

Example Question #2 : Help With Stem Cells

Which is the following answers best describes the key difference between totipotent and pluripotent stem cells?

Possible Answers:

Pluripotent stem cells can only form a very limited subset of tissue types depending on their origin; totipotent stem cells have the potential to become any of the three embryonic germ layers. 

Totipotent stem cells have the potential to become an entire organism; pluripotent stem cells only have the potential to become blood and bone cell types. 

Pluripotent stem cells have the potential to become an entire organism; totipotent stem cells can form any of the three embryonic germ layers, but cannot give rise to an entire organism. 

Totipotent stem cells have the potential to become an entire organism; pluripotent stem cells can form any of the three embryonic germ layers, but cannot give rise to an entire organism. 

Totipotent and pluripotent stem cells are different names for the same cell type, and thus there is no difference in their potential. 

Correct answer:

Totipotent stem cells have the potential to become an entire organism; pluripotent stem cells can form any of the three embryonic germ layers, but cannot give rise to an entire organism. 

Explanation:

Totipotent stem cells are the stem cells with the greatest potential of all stem cell types. A totipotent stem cell can give rise to any embryonic cell type, and can ultimately form an entire organism. Pluripotent stem cells can become any of the three embryonic germ layers, however, they do not have the capacity to form an entire organism because they cannot give rise to the extraembryonic tissue required for development, such as the placenta. 

All GRE Subject Test: Biochemistry, Cell, and Molecular Biology Resources

1 Diagnostic Test 201 Practice Tests Question of the Day Flashcards Learn by Concept
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