GRE Subject Test: Biochemistry, Cell, and Molecular Biology : Help with Metabolic Regulation and Hormones

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for GRE Subject Test: Biochemistry, Cell, and Molecular Biology

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Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Help With Metabolic Regulation And Hormones

Which of the following choices is a likely response to low blood glucose levels?

I. Phosphorylation of glycogen phosphorylase

II. Phosphorylation of glycogen synthase

III. Enhanced production of insulin

Possible Answers:

I only

I and II

II and III

I and III

Correct answer:

I and II

Explanation:

When blood glucose levels are low, the obvious bodily response is to create more free glucose. Glycogen phosphorylase is an enzyme that is responsible for freeing glucose monomers from glycogen (thus creating more free glucose and raising the blood glucose concentration). Phosphorylation of glycogen phosphorylase activates the enzyme to create more free glucose. Thus, statement I should appear in our answer.

Glycogen synthase is an enzyme that does just the opposite; it traps free-floating glucose monomers by adding them to glycogen chains. Phosphorylation of glycogen synthase inhibits the enzyme's function to create more free glucose. Thus, statement II should also appear in our answer.

Increasing the production of insulin would lower blood glucose levels even further (glucagon, another hormone, would help raise them). Thus, statement III should not appear in our answer.

The final answer is statements I and II.

Example Question #2 : Help With Metabolic Regulation And Hormones

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is produced in the pituitary gland and then secreted into the blood stream. What is the function of ADH? 

Possible Answers:

Secreted ADH stimulates the pancreas to secrete more insulin by binding specific receptors in pancreatic capillaries

Secreted ADH decreases the reabsorbtion of sodium and chloride in the ascending loop of Henle by binding and inhibiting the ATP-dependent sodium/chloride pumps

Secreted ADH increases the amount of water reabsorbed from the nephron into the bloodstream by increasing the number of aquaporins in the collecting duct 

Secreted ADH decreases the amount of water reabsorbed in the nephron by stimulating the ATP-dependent closure of aquaporins in the collecting duct

Secreted ADH stimulates the reabsorption of glucose by increasing the number of glucose-2 transporters in the nephron proximal tubule

Correct answer:

Secreted ADH increases the amount of water reabsorbed from the nephron into the bloodstream by increasing the number of aquaporins in the collecting duct 

Explanation:

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) binds the ADH receptors in the basolateral membrane of the collecting duct, which, through an ATP-dependent signaling cascade, synthesizes and relocates aquaporin-2 to the apical membrane of the collecting duct epithelial cells. The increase of aquaporin-2 at this membrane location facilitates increased water reabsorbtion into the bloodstream. 

Example Question #3 : Help With Metabolic Regulation And Hormones

Which of the following cellular processes is NOT stimulated by insulin? 

Possible Answers:

Lipolysis

Glycogenesis

Cholesterol synthesis

Glycolysis

Correct answer:

Lipolysis

Explanation:

Insulin is a hormone that can often be associated with post-meal metabolism. The body has just eaten a meal, and is sequestering all of the nutrients and vitamins in the food. As a result, insulin is often associated with anabolic processes: glycogenesis, cholesterol and protein synthesis, and lipogenesis. Lipolysis, or the breaking down of fatty acids, is observed in periods of starvation, and therefore would not be stimulated by insulin.

Example Question #4 : Help With Metabolic Regulation And Hormones

Which enzyme would be inhibited in the body following a carbohydrate-heavy meal?

Possible Answers:

Glucokinase

PFK-1

Glycogen synthase

Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase

Correct answer:

Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase

Explanation:

After eating a carbohydrate-heavy meal, the body is not going to have any problem getting access to glucose. As a result, the body is going to activate enzymes needed for bringing glucose into cells and storing/using it. This includes glucokinase, PFK-1, and glycogen synthase. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase is an enzyme used in gluconeogenesis. Since the body does not need to create glucose following the meal, this enzyme is inhibited.

All GRE Subject Test: Biochemistry, Cell, and Molecular Biology Resources

1 Diagnostic Test 201 Practice Tests Question of the Day Flashcards Learn by Concept
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