GRE Subject Test: Biochemistry, Cell, and Molecular Biology : Help with Lysosome Function

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for GRE Subject Test: Biochemistry, Cell, and Molecular Biology

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All GRE Subject Test: Biochemistry, Cell, and Molecular Biology Resources

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Example Questions

Example Question #53 : Cell Biology

What are acid hydrolases?

Possible Answers:

Proteins designed to break apart acids using water

Proteins that break apart molecules using acid catalysts

Protein designed to create acids

Proteins commonly found in lysosomes and designed to function at low pH

Correct answer:

Proteins commonly found in lysosomes and designed to function at low pH

Explanation:

Acid hydrolases are proteins that are specifically designed to function at acidic pH, particularly at levels that would typically denature other proteins. They are commonly found in lysosomes where they aid in the digestion of various cellular wastes and materials.

Though acid hydrolases use water to break apart molecules, acids are not used as reactants, products, or catalysts in these reactions.

Example Question #2 : Help With Lysosome Function

Which of the following organelles has an acidic internal pH?

Possible Answers:

Mitochondria

Lysosomes

Nucleus

Golgi apparatus

Correct answer:

Lysosomes

Explanation:

An acidic environment is not suitable for the cell as a whole, so the low pH is sequestered in a specific organelle: the lysosome. This low pH in the lysosome activates the hydrolytic enzymes in the lysosome, and allows them to degrade macromolecules that enter the organelle.

Example Question #61 : Cell Biology

Which cell organelle is tasked with collecting and recycling cytoplasmic debris?

Possible Answers:

Mitochondria

Nucleus

Lysosome

Endoplasmic reticulum

Ribosomes

Correct answer:

Lysosome

Explanation:

A lysosome is a cell organelle that is part of the intracellular digestive system. Inside its limiting membrane there are hydrolytic enzymes capable of breaking down proteins and carbohydrates. Lysosomal enzymes contribute to the digestion of pathogens phagocytosed by a cell, and also to the tissue damage that accompanies inflammation. In short, they swallow up dead cells and debris, breaking down these compounds and recycling their components.

The mitochondria are frequently referred to as "powerhouses" because they are the site of the reactions of anabolic metabolism and most ATP synthesis. The nucleus is considered the "brain" of the cell because it controls the cell and contains the cell's genetic material. The ribosomes and endoplasmic reticulum are the sites of protein synthesis; smooth endoplasmic reticulum also synthesizes lipids and digests toxins.

Example Question #1 : Help With Lysosome Function

Which of the following is not a function of the lysosome within the cell?

Possible Answers:

Detoxification of ethanol through oxidation reactions. 

Uptake of organelles through autophagy. 

Degradation of cellular components that have become too old to function properly.

Contain an acidic, aqueous lumen for efficient destruction of components. 

Degradation of RNA and DNA into monomeric subunits to be recycled. 

Correct answer:

Detoxification of ethanol through oxidation reactions. 

Explanation:

The lysosome can be considered the "garbage man" of the cell. Old cellular parts that are no longer very useful to the cell are taken up by lysosomes and broken down into more fundamental molecules. Each of the functions listed above has been associated with the lysosome, except for the detoxification of ethanol, which is a specific function of the peroxisome.

All GRE Subject Test: Biochemistry, Cell, and Molecular Biology Resources

1 Diagnostic Test 201 Practice Tests Question of the Day Flashcards Learn by Concept
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