GRE Subject Test: Biochemistry, Cell, and Molecular Biology : Help with Developmental Stages

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for GRE Subject Test: Biochemistry, Cell, and Molecular Biology

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All GRE Subject Test: Biochemistry, Cell, and Molecular Biology Resources

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Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Help With Developmental Stages

The mesodermal germ layer can give rise to each of the following cell types except __________.

Possible Answers:

myoblasts

the notocord 

fibroblasts

alveoli 

Correct answer:

alveoli 

Explanation:

The mesoderm gives rise to the "middle" cells that line the body, such as the muscle. The notocord is a critical embryonic structure that forms from the mesoderm, and myoblasts and fibroblasts are cells that line the body. The alveoli are part of the lung, which originates from the endodermal germ layer.

Example Question #2 : Help With Developmental Stages

Which of the listed processes are part of gastrulation?

Possible Answers:

The ingression of cells from the epiblast to form a circular blastocyst

The formation of the primitive streak that undergoes epithelial to mesenchymal transition

The invagination of the notochord to induce the formation of the neural plate

The formation of ectoderm and endoderm germ layers in radially symmetric organisms

Correct answer:

The formation of the primitive streak that undergoes epithelial to mesenchymal transition

Explanation:

Gastrulation is the process of cells from the epiblast ingressing into the embryo to form the three germ layers of bilaterally symetrical animals. When gastrulation is complete, the embryo is referred to as a gastrula. The group of cells that lead the migration of cells into the embryo are called the primitive streak, and they undergo epithelial to mesenchymal transition to be able to migrate. You can image the epithelium as many tightly packed squares. Becomimg mesenchymal turns these cells into more malleable stage, like a soft cushion. They can then "drop" into the inner layer of the blastocyst and lead the process of gastrulation.

Example Question #3 : Help With Developmental Stages

Which of the following statements about determination is true? 

Possible Answers:

The pattern of transcription is the same in a differentiated cell as it is in a determined cell 

Determination occurs after two cell divisions in most organisms

Once determined, a cell changes its appearance

Determination follows differentiation

No matter where its placed in an embryo, a determined cell will keep its determination

Correct answer:

No matter where its placed in an embryo, a determined cell will keep its determination

Explanation:

Determination is the process of a cell committing to a particular fate and is influenced by the cell's environment as well as its own genome. It's not possible to tell the difference between an undetermined and a determined cell since determined cells do not change in appearance. After determination comes differentiation. Differentiation results from differential gene expression (transcription, mRNA splicing, and translation). 

Example Question #4 : Help With Developmental Stages

Which of the following terms describes when the single germ layered blastula reorganizes into a structure with mesoderm, endoderm, and ectoderm germ layers? 

Possible Answers:

Morphogenesis

Myogenesis

Blastulation

Gastrulation

Somiteogenesis

Correct answer:

Gastrulation

Explanation:

The correct answer is gastrulation. Gastrulation occurs through five stages (1. invagination 2. involution 3. ingression 4. delamination 5. epiboly) and results in the formation of a gastrula with the mesoderm, endoderm, and ectoderm germ layers. Blastulation is the formation of the single germ layered blastula, which is a process that precedes gastrulation. Somiteogenesis forms somites in developing embryos to give rise to the future spine. Myogenesis is the formation of muscle tissue. Morphogenesis is the process of an organism forming its shape, driven by cell cycle progression, differentiation, and subsequent development of organs and appendages. 

Example Question #5 : Help With Developmental Stages

Which embryonic structure is created by the process of gastrulation?

Possible Answers:

The notochord

The mesoderm

The epiblast

The neural tube

Correct answer:

The mesoderm

Explanation:

Gastrulation is a process occurring in week three of development. At this time, the epiblast will further differentiate into three germ layers: the ectoderm, the mesoderm, and the endoderm. As a result, we can say that gastrulation allows for the creation of the mesoderm.

All GRE Subject Test: Biochemistry, Cell, and Molecular Biology Resources

1 Diagnostic Test 201 Practice Tests Question of the Day Flashcards Learn by Concept
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