GRE Subject Test: Biochemistry, Cell, and Molecular Biology : Help with Catabolism

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for GRE Subject Test: Biochemistry, Cell, and Molecular Biology

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Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Help With Catabolism

__________ is an enzyme used to help break down glycogen. The end product is __________.

Possible Answers:

Glycogen phosphatase . . . glucose-1-phosphate

Glycogen phosphorylase . . . glucose-1-phosphate

Glycogen phosphorylase . . . glucose-6-phosphate

Glycogen phosphatase . . . glucose-6-phosphate

Correct answer:

Glycogen phosphorylase . . . glucose-1-phosphate

Explanation:

Phosphorylases are enzymes that attach phosphate groups to acceptors by breaking a chemical bond. Phosphatases are enzymes that remove phosphate groups.

Glycogen catabolism occurs by activation of glycogen phosphorylase, which then catalyzes the reaction of glycogen into glucose-1-phosphate (and a glycogen chain that is one glucose shorter).

Example Question #2 : Help With Catabolism

__________ helps transfer fatty acids into the mitochondrial matrix.

Possible Answers:

Fatty acid transferase

Biotin

Carnitine

Acyl-CoA

Correct answer:

Carnitine

Explanation:

Carnitine is ultimately responsible for helping fatty acids enter into the mitochondrial matrix. Acyl-CoA is actually the activated fatty acid that is being transferred. Carnitine reacts with acyl-CoA, and the newly formed acyl carnitine is moved into the mitochondrial matrix by a translocase.

Biotin is a vitamin that has many functions, including aiding in fatty acid synthesis. There is no protein that is actually called fatty acid transferase.

Example Question #115 : Biochemistry

Which of the following statements about catabolic pathways are not true?

Possible Answers:

Macromolecules are only involved in catabolic pathways

Polysaccharides are hydrolyzed to glucose, which can then pass through glycolysis and the citric acid cycle

Lipids are broken down into glycerol and fatty acids

Proteins are hydrolyzed into their amino acids, which feed into glycolysis or the citric acid cycle

Polysaccharides eventually release energy in the form of NADH and ATP

Correct answer:

Macromolecules are only involved in catabolic pathways

Explanation:

Macromolecules, such as peptides, polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins can be broken down to provide energy as well as operate in reverse through anabolic pathways. Anabolic and catabolic processes can occur simultaneously. All of the other answers are true. 

Example Question #3 : Help With Catabolism

Which of the following cellular processes is defined as a catabolic reaction?

Possible Answers:

Protein synthesis

Glycogenesis

Gluconeogenesis

Gylcolysis

Correct answer:

Gylcolysis

Explanation:

A catabolic reaction is defined as a reaction in which a large molecule is broken down into smaller subunits. Of the following options, all listed are anabolic except for glycolysis. Glycolysis is the process of converting a glucose molecule into 2 pyruvate molecules, which classifies it as catabolic in nature.

All GRE Subject Test: Biochemistry, Cell, and Molecular Biology Resources

1 Diagnostic Test 201 Practice Tests Question of the Day Flashcards Learn by Concept
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