# GMAT Integrated Reasoning : Understanding multi-source reasoning

## Example Questions

### Example Question #1 : Understanding Multi Source Reasoning

Email #1

Email from wedding coordinator to bride and groom

February 12, at 10:13am

"The final headcount for booking the pavilion for the reception is today. Right now we have a rough estimate of 425 people. Is this still true and if so, do we know how many people will be having the chicken dinner?"

Email #2

Email from the bride to the wedding coordinator

February 12, at 10:27am

"We are still waiting on 40 invitations to RSVP; we gave a deadline of February 15. Is there a possibility for an extension to the 15th? Of the current 425 guests 375 have opted for the chicken dinner."

Email #3

Email from the wedding coordinator to the bride

February 12, at 11:02am

"I will reach out to the pavilion to see if an extension is possible and get back to you this afternoon. We can always assume for more since the pavilion does offer a refund if any changes are made at least one week prior to the wedding."

Based on the given information in the emails, determine whether the statements are justified.

I. The wedding coordinator is not willing to extend the guest headcount deadline.

II. The bride does not have a specific, expected date to receive RSVPs.

III. The wedding coordinator gives additional options to the bride in case the pavilion will not give an extension.

I. Not justified

II. Not justified

III. Justified

I. Justified

II. Not justified

III. Justified

I. Justified

II. Justified

III. Not justified

I. Not justified

II. Justified

III. Not Justified

I. Not justified

II. Justified

III. Justified

I. Not justified

II. Not justified

III. Justified

Explanation:

To determine which statements are justified, look at the information given in the emails.

For statement I. The wedding coordinator is not willing to extend the guest headcount deadline. Look at the bold statement in email #3,

Email from the wedding coordinator to the bride

February 12, at 11:02am

I will reach out to the pavilion to see if an extension is possible and get back to you this afternoon. We can always assume for more since the pavilion does offer a refund if any chances are made at least one week prior to the wedding.

Therefore, the wedding coordinator is willing to extend the guest count if at all possible. Thus, this statement is not justified.

For statement II. The bride does not have a specific, expected date to receive RSVPs. Look at the bold statement in email #2,

Email from the bride to the wedding coordinator

February 12, at 10:27am

We are still waiting on 40 invitations to RSVP; we gave a deadline of February 15. Is there a possibility for an extension to the 15th? Of the current 425 guests 375 have opted for the chicken dinner.

Therefore, the bride does give a deadline for the RSVPs. Thus, this statement is not justified.

For statement III. The wedding coordinator gives additional options to the bride in case the pavilion will not give an extension. Look at the bold statement in email #3,

Email from the wedding coordinator to the bride

February 12, at 11:02am

I will reach out to the pavilion to see if an extension is possible and get back to you this afternoon. We can always assume for more since the pavilion does offer a refund if any changes are made at least one week prior to the wedding.

Since the wedding coordinator gives additional options to the bride, the statement is justified.

### Example Question #2 : Understanding Multi Source Reasoning

Techniques

At a gym there are three different paths an individual can take to obtaining membership. The first option is personal training. The second option is group fitness classes and the last option is individual direction. Members are only allowed to partake in individual direction after 5 personal training sessions and 10 group fitness classes.

Personnel

For personal training, there must be one trainer per individual. For group fitness classes there must be one trainer per eight individuals. For individual direction, no trainer is required; however, only 25 members can partake in individual direction at a time. At this particular gym there are 12 trainers.

Price

The price of membership depends on the technique the individual chooses. Personal training costs between $40 and$75 per session, depending on the trainer. Group fitness classes cost $20 per session. Individual direction costs$15 per visit.

Based on the given information, determine whether each of the statements is justified.

I. An individual who is experienced in fitness and has taken 3 group classes can choose to pay for the individual direction membership.

II. An individual who has a budget of $160 a month to spend on fitness after going through the personal training and group sessions can attend 8 classes per month. III. Tina has completed all the necessary requirements to have an individual direction membership; Tina would make the 26th member of this type. Possible Answers: I. Not justified II. Justified III. Justified I. Justified II. Justified III. Not justified I. Not justified II. Not Justified III. Justified I. Justified II. Not Justified III. Not justified I. Not justified II. Justified III. Not justified Correct answer: I. Not justified II. Justified III. Not justified Explanation: Look at each of the statements and the given information in the paragraphs to determine whether they are justified or not. I. An individual who is experienced in fitness and has taken 3 group classes can choose to pay for the individual direction membership. Look at the bolded sentence in the techniques paragraph, At a gym there are three different paths an individual can take to obtaining membership. The first option is personal training. The second option is group fitness classes and the last option is individual direction. Members are only allowed to partake in individual direct after 5 personal training sessions and 10 group fitness classes. Therefore, statement I. is not justified. II. An individual who has a budget of$160 a month to spend on fitness after going through the personal training and group sessions can attend 8 classes per month.

Look at the bolded sentence in the price paragraph,

The price of membership depends on the technique the individual chooses. Personal training costs any where between $40 and$75 per session depending on the trainer. Group fitness classes cost $20 per session and individual direction costs$15 per visit.

Therefore, statement II. is justified.

III. Tina has completed all the necessary requirements to have an individual direction membership; Tina would make the 26th member of this type.

Look at the bolded sentence is the personnel,

For personal training, there must be one trainer per individual. For group fitness classes there must be one trainer per eight individuals. For individual direction, no trainer is required however, only 25 members can part take in individual direction at a time. At this particular gym there are 12 trainers.

Therefore, statement III. is not justified.

### Example Question #3 : Understanding Multi Source Reasoning

Type of Art

Pointillism is a type of art that is created by drawing numerous dots on paper. Watercolor paintings are created by combining paint and water to create different shades. Pottery is made by molding clay.

Time to Create a Piece

A pointillism piece that has dimensions of 12x18 takes on average 15 hours to create. A watercolor painting that is 17 x 23 takes on average 20 hours to create. A piece of pottery that has dimensions 6 x 2 x 4 takes 12 hours to create.

Exposition

An art school is holding an exposition to highlight their student artists. The school will commission their students to create new works of art specifically for the exposition. The exposition requires one-third of the artwork displayed to be watercolor paintings and one-fifth to be pottery pieces.

Based on the given information, determine whether each of the statements is justified.

I. There are 20 watercolor paintings, 12 pottery pieces, and 28 pointillism pieces in the art exposition.

II. Students that will be featured in the school's exposition require no more than one day's notice.

II. Timothy is known for his watercolor pieces and is expected to paint 4 for the school's exposition. Timothy can create all the pieces over the weekend (Saturday and Sunday).

I. Not Justified

II. Justified

III. Not justified

I. Not justified

II. Justified

III. Justified

I. Justified

II. Justified

III. Not Justified

I. Justified

II. Not justified

III. Justified

I. Justified

II. Not justified

III. Not justified

I. Justified

II. Justified

III. Not Justified

Explanation:

I. There are 20 watercolor paintings, 12 pottery pieces, and 28 pointillism pieces in the art exposition.

Looking at the bolded sentence from the third paragraph,

A art school is holding an exposition to highlight their student talent. The exposition requires a third of the art work to be watercolor paintings and a fifth to be pottery pieces.

Therefore statement I. is justified.

II. Students that will be featured in the school's exposition require a least a days notice.

Looking at the bolded sentence from the second paragraph,

A pointillism piece that has dimensions of 12x18 takes on average 15 hours to create. A watercolor painting that is 17x23 takes on average 20 hours to create. A piece of pottery that has dimensions 6x2x4 takes 12 hours to create.

Since the longest an art piece takes to create is 20 hours, one days notice, although not desired, is acceptable. Therefore, statement II. is justified.

II. Timothy is known for his watercolor pieces and is expected to paint 4 for the school's exposition. Timothy can create all the pieces over the weekend (Saturday and Sunday).

Since a watercolor painting takes 20 hours and Timothy needs to create 4, that means it will take him 80 hours to complete them. Since there are only 24 hours in a day, Saturday and Sunday only gives 48 hours therefore, statement III. is not justified.

### Example Question #4 : Understanding Multi Source Reasoning

Email #1

Email from wedding coordinator to bride and groom

February 12, at 10:13am

"The final headcount for booking the pavilion for the reception is today. Right now we have a rough estimate of 425 people. Is this still true and if so, do we know how many people will be having the chicken dinner?"

Email #2

Email from the bride to the wedding coordinator

February 12, at 10:27am

"We are still waiting on 40 invitations to RSVP; we gave a deadline of February 15. Is there a possibility for an extension to the 15th? Of the current 425 guests 375 have opted for the chicken dinner."

Email #3

Email from the wedding coordinator to the bride

February 12, at 11:02am

"I will reach out to the pavilion to see if an extension is possible and get back to you this afternoon. We can always assume for more since the pavilion does offer a refund if any changes are made at least one week prior to the wedding."

Based on the given information in the emails, determine whether the statements are justified.

I. The wedding coordinator is not willing to extend the guest headcount deadline.

II. The bride does not have a specific, expected date to receive RSVPs.

III. The wedding coordinator gives additional options to the bride in case the pavilion will not give an extension.

I. Not justified

II. Not justified

III. Justified

I. Justified

II. Not justified

III. Justified

I. Not justified

II. Justified

III. Not Justified

I. Justified

II. Justified

III. Not justified

I. Not justified

II. Justified

III. Justified

I. Not justified

II. Not justified

III. Justified

Explanation:

To determine which statements are justified, look at the information given in the emails.

For statement I. The wedding coordinator is not willing to extend the guest headcount deadline. Look at the bold statement in email #3,

Email from the wedding coordinator to the bride

February 12, at 11:02am

I will reach out to the pavilion to see if an extension is possible and get back to you this afternoon. We can always assume for more since the pavilion does offer a refund if any chances are made at least one week prior to the wedding.

Therefore, the wedding coordinator is willing to extend the guest count if at all possible. Thus, this statement is not justified.

For statement II. The bride does not have a specific, expected date to receive RSVPs. Look at the bold statement in email #2,

Email from the bride to the wedding coordinator

February 12, at 10:27am

We are still waiting on 40 invitations to RSVP; we gave a deadline of February 15. Is there a possibility for an extension to the 15th? Of the current 425 guests 375 have opted for the chicken dinner.

Therefore, the bride does give a deadline for the RSVPs. Thus, this statement is not justified.

For statement III. The wedding coordinator gives additional options to the bride in case the pavilion will not give an extension. Look at the bold statement in email #3,

Email from the wedding coordinator to the bride

February 12, at 11:02am

I will reach out to the pavilion to see if an extension is possible and get back to you this afternoon. We can always assume for more since the pavilion does offer a refund if any changes are made at least one week prior to the wedding.

Since the wedding coordinator gives additional options to the bride, the statement is justified.

### Example Question #5 : Understanding Multi Source Reasoning

Techniques

At a gym there are three different paths an individual can take to obtaining membership. The first option is personal training. The second option is group fitness classes and the last option is individual direction. Members are only allowed to partake in individual direction after 5 personal training sessions and 10 group fitness classes.

Personnel

For personal training, there must be one trainer per individual. For group fitness classes there must be one trainer per eight individuals. For individual direction, no trainer is required; however, only 25 members can partake in individual direction at a time. At this particular gym there are 12 trainers.

Price

The price of membership depends on the technique the individual chooses. Personal training costs between $40 and$75 per session, depending on the trainer. Group fitness classes cost $20 per session. Individual direction costs$15 per visit.

Based on the given information, determine whether each of the statements is justified.

I. An individual who is experienced in fitness and has taken 3 group classes can choose to pay for the individual direction membership.

II. An individual who has a budget of $160 a month to spend on fitness after going through the personal training and group sessions can attend 8 classes per month. III. Tina has completed all the necessary requirements to have an individual direction membership; Tina would make the 26th member of this type. Possible Answers: I. Not justified II. Not Justified III. Justified I. Not justified II. Justified III. Justified I. Justified II. Not Justified III. Not justified I. Justified II. Justified III. Not justified I. Not justified II. Justified III. Not justified Correct answer: I. Not justified II. Justified III. Not justified Explanation: Look at each of the statements and the given information in the paragraphs to determine whether they are justified or not. I. An individual who is experienced in fitness and has taken 3 group classes can choose to pay for the individual direction membership. Look at the bolded sentence in the techniques paragraph, At a gym there are three different paths an individual can take to obtaining membership. The first option is personal training. The second option is group fitness classes and the last option is individual direction. Members are only allowed to partake in individual direct after 5 personal training sessions and 10 group fitness classes. Therefore, statement I. is not justified. II. An individual who has a budget of$160 a month to spend on fitness after going through the personal training and group sessions can attend 8 classes per month.

Look at the bolded sentence in the price paragraph,

The price of membership depends on the technique the individual chooses. Personal training costs any where between $40 and$75 per session depending on the trainer. Group fitness classes cost $20 per session and individual direction costs$15 per visit.

Therefore, statement II. is justified.

III. Tina has completed all the necessary requirements to have an individual direction membership; Tina would make the 26th member of this type.

Look at the bolded sentence is the personnel,

For personal training, there must be one trainer per individual. For group fitness classes there must be one trainer per eight individuals. For individual direction, no trainer is required however, only 25 members can part take in individual direction at a time. At this particular gym there are 12 trainers.

Therefore, statement III. is not justified.

### Example Question #6 : Understanding Multi Source Reasoning

Type of Art

Pointillism is a type of art that is created by drawing numerous dots on paper. Watercolor paintings are created by combining paint and water to create different shades. Pottery is made by molding clay.

Time to Create a Piece

A pointillism piece that has dimensions of 12x18 takes on average 15 hours to create. A watercolor painting that is 17 x 23 takes on average 20 hours to create. A piece of pottery that has dimensions 6 x 2 x 4 takes 12 hours to create.

Exposition

An art school is holding an exposition to highlight their student artists. The school will commission their students to create new works of art specifically for the exposition. The exposition requires one-third of the artwork displayed to be watercolor paintings and one-fifth to be pottery pieces.

Based on the given information, determine whether each of the statements is justified.

I. There are 20 watercolor paintings, 12 pottery pieces, and 28 pointillism pieces in the art exposition.

II. Students that will be featured in the school's exposition require no more than one day's notice.

II. Timothy is known for his watercolor pieces and is expected to paint 4 for the school's exposition. Timothy can create all the pieces over the weekend (Saturday and Sunday).

I. Justified

II. Not justified

III. Justified

I. Justified

II. Not justified

III. Not justified

I. Not justified

II. Justified

III. Justified

I. Not Justified

II. Justified

III. Not justified

I. Justified

II. Justified

III. Not Justified

I. Justified

II. Justified

III. Not Justified

Explanation:

I. There are 20 watercolor paintings, 12 pottery pieces, and 28 pointillism pieces in the art exposition.

Looking at the bolded sentence from the third paragraph,

A art school is holding an exposition to highlight their student talent. The exposition requires a third of the art work to be watercolor paintings and a fifth to be pottery pieces.

Therefore statement I. is justified.

II. Students that will be featured in the school's exposition require a least a days notice.

Looking at the bolded sentence from the second paragraph,

A pointillism piece that has dimensions of 12x18 takes on average 15 hours to create. A watercolor painting that is 17x23 takes on average 20 hours to create. A piece of pottery that has dimensions 6x2x4 takes 12 hours to create.

Since the longest an art piece takes to create is 20 hours, one days notice, although not desired, is acceptable. Therefore, statement II. is justified.

II. Timothy is known for his watercolor pieces and is expected to paint 4 for the school's exposition. Timothy can create all the pieces over the weekend (Saturday and Sunday).

Since a watercolor painting takes 20 hours and Timothy needs to create 4, that means it will take him 80 hours to complete them. Since there are only 24 hours in a day, Saturday and Sunday only gives 48 hours therefore, statement III. is not justified.