Genetics : Central Dogma of Biology

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for Genetics

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Central Dogma Of Biology

What is meant by the term "Karyokinesis"

Possible Answers:

The process of entering the G0 phase of the cell cycle

The process of converting RNA to proteins

The process of exiting the G0 phase of the cell cycle

The process of converting DNA to RNA

Division of the nucleus

Correct answer:

Division of the nucleus

Explanation:

Karyokinesis is the division of the cell's nucleus during mitosis. A similar (but different meaning) word is cytokinesis. Cytokinesis is the division of the cell cytoplasm, which occurs at the end of mitosis. The other answer choices do not reflect the meaning of karyokinesis.

Example Question #2 : Central Dogma Of Biology

What is the enzyme used during transcription?

Possible Answers:

DNA Polymerase III

DNA Polymerase

DNA Polymerase II

RNA Polymerase III

RNA Polymerase

Correct answer:

RNA Polymerase

Explanation:

Transcription begins when RNA polymerase binds to promoter DNA sequences on a gene. This leads to the production of a RNA chain, complimentary to the original (template) DNA strand.

Example Question #3 : Central Dogma Of Biology

What is the size of the prokaryotic ribosome and its subunits?

Possible Answers:

30S and 30S subunits, 60S ribosome

 

50S and 50S subunits, 70S ribosome

 

50S and 30S subunits, 70S ribosome

30S and 40S subunits, 70S ribosome

50S and 30S subunits, 80S ribosome

 

Correct answer:

50S and 30S subunits, 70S ribosome

Explanation:

Prokaryotic ribosomes consist of two unequally sized subunits, large and small, which form a complete ribosome unit.

Example Question #4 : Central Dogma Of Biology

Which of the following most accurately describes the central dogma of biology?

Possible Answers:

RNA to protein to DNA

DNA to protein to RNA

DNA to RNA to protein 

Protein to RNA to DNA

Correct answer:

DNA to RNA to protein 

Explanation:

The central dogma of biology dictates that the coded genetic information stored in DNA is transcribed into single stranded RNA, which is then translated into protein. 

Example Question #5 : Central Dogma Of Biology

Which of the following best illustrates the central dogma of biology in terms of how a cell makes proteins? 

Possible Answers:

Correct answer:

Explanation:

DNA from the chromosomes first undergoes transcription to generate RNA. This RNA then undergoes translation, which is the process by which the genetic code is used to make necessary proteins. 

Example Question #6 : Central Dogma Of Biology

In the central dogma of biology, what is the name of the process that lies between RNA and protein? I.e., what process does the cell use to make protein from RNA? 

Possible Answers:

Suppression

Replication

Translation

Transcription

Expression

Correct answer:

Translation

Explanation:

Translation is the process in which RNAs are "read" by ribosomes, and the appropriate protein is made. 

Example Question #7 : Central Dogma Of Biology

If a DNA strand has the following sequence, choose the answer that has the correct mRNA sequence. 

3' ATTAGCAC 5'

Possible Answers:

UAAUCGUG

ATTAGCAC

GCCACTTA

CACGATTA

TAATCGTG

Correct answer:

UAAUCGUG

Explanation:

The mRNA will be complementary to the DNA sequence, but remember that mRNA has a uracil (U) base instead of thymine (T). If the base on the left is the DNA, the corresponding mRNA code is:

UAAUCGUG

Example Question #8 : Central Dogma Of Biology

If a DNA coding strand has the following sequence, which of the following is the sequence of the DNA template strand? 

3' ACTGTTAC 5' 

Possible Answers:

ACTGTTAC

TGACAATG

TGUCUUTG

ACUGUUAC

GCCGTTAC

Correct answer:

TGACAATG

Explanation:

The DNA template strand will be complementary to the DNA coding strand sequence. If the base on the left is the coding DNA, the corresponding template DNA strand code is:

TGACAATG

Example Question #9 : Central Dogma Of Biology

Which of the following best describes the role of the enzyme helicase? 

Possible Answers:

Copying the DNA for replication

Ligating broken strands back together

Repairing damaged DNA

Separating double-stranded RNA by breaking bonds 

Unzip DNA strands by breaking the bonds between the two strands.

Correct answer:

Unzip DNA strands by breaking the bonds between the two strands.

Explanation:

Helicase is the enzyme that breaks the bonds between the coding and template strands of DNA so that the other DNA replication machinery can access the codes. The other functions listed are important roles, but can be attributed to other enzymes.

Example Question #10 : Central Dogma Of Biology

What is the central dogma of biology?

Possible Answers:

Protein to RNA to DNA

Protein to DNA to RNA

DNA to mRNA to protein to tRNA

DNA to RNA to protein

DNA to protein to RNA

Correct answer:

DNA to RNA to protein

Explanation:

The central dogma of biology is best described by DNA is transcribed to RNA, which is translated to protein. The genetic material (DNA) is transcribed into mRNA (RNA) which is than translated into proteins. The central dogma is an important principle in molecular biology, and it helps explain why DNA plays such an important role in genetic expression.

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