GED Science : Organelles

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for GED Science

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Example Questions

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Example Question #46 : Ged Science

Which of the following organelles is found in plant cells, but not in animal cells?

Possible Answers:

Chloroplast

Golgi body

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

Mitochondria

Correct answer:

Chloroplast

Explanation:

One of the primary differences between plant cells and animal cells is that plant cells must be able to undergo photosynthesis. Photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplasts, which contain the pigment chlorophyll. Chloroplasts are not found in animal cells, but are found in plant cells.

Both animal and plant cells contain Golgi bodies, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondria.

Example Question #1 : Organelles

Which of the following correctly gives the function of an organelle found within an eukaryotic cell

Possible Answers:

Lysosomes are responsible for protein synthesis

Mitochondria produce vast stores of ATP (energy) for the cell to use

The Golgi body provides structural support to the cell

Ribosomes are responsible for disposal and break down of used and unwanted proteins

The smooth endoplasmic reticulum is responsible for breaking down of unwanted proteins

Correct answer:

Mitochondria produce vast stores of ATP (energy) for the cell to use

Explanation:

Mitochondria are the only organelle defined correctly. The main processes of cell respiration, namely the electron transport chain, occur in the mitochondria to produce energy in the form of ATP. Because of this, mitochondria are known as the "powerhouses" of the cell.

Ribosomes are responsible for transcribing RNA and creating new proteins. The Golgi body packages proteins into vesicles that can be transported out of the cell. Lysosomes contain enzymes that can digest old or damaged proteins. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum is responsible for synthesizing lipids and for degrading toxins, such as alcohol.

Example Question #2 : Organelles

Which RNA-based organelle is the site of protein synthesis within the cell?

Possible Answers:

Vacuole

Lysosomes

Mitochondria

Ribosomes

Nucleus

Correct answer:

Ribosomes

Explanation:

Ribosomes are composed of a unique type of RNA, rRNA, and are located within the cytoplasm of the cell and on the surface of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Here, proteins are assembled from amino acids piece by piece using instructions copied from DNA.

Example Question #3 : Organelles

Where does ATP synthesis occur within the cell? 

Possible Answers:

Mitochondria

Endoplasmic reticulum

Nucleus

Golgi apparatus

Ribosomes

Correct answer:

Mitochondria

Explanation:

The mitochondria are organelles that are often referred to as the "power plant" of the cell. Mitochondria are responsible for extracting energy from food molecules and binding it in the high energy bonds of the ATP molecule.  

Example Question #4 : Organelles

What is the function of the Golgi apparatus within the cell?

Possible Answers:

Manufacturing lipids such as steroid hormones

The site of protein synthesis within the cell

Digestion of food and waste products

Transport of materials packaged in vesicles to other parts of the cell or outside the cell membrane

Synthesis of chemical energy from sunlight

Correct answer:

Transport of materials packaged in vesicles to other parts of the cell or outside the cell membrane

Explanation:

The Golgi apparatus can be thought of as the "shipping center" of the cell. Here, proteins and other materials are packaged in vesicles which are transported to other sites in the cell or outside the cell membrane for "export".  

Example Question #5 : Organelles

Which of the following organelles is not found in animal cells?

Possible Answers:

Mitochondria

Ribosomes

Chloroplast

Endoplasmic reticulum

Nucleus

Correct answer:

Chloroplast

Explanation:

The chloroplast is unique to plant cells (and some bacteria and protists), and is the site of photosynthesis. Almost all energy used by life is captured by this organelle. All other answers listed can be found in both plant and animal cells.  

Example Question #6 : Organelles

Which of the following is not a membranous organelle?

Possible Answers:

Mitochondria

Lysosome

Golgi apparatus

Endoplasmic reticulum

Ribosomes

Correct answer:

Ribosomes

Explanation:

Nonmembranous organelles are always in contact with cytosol.

Membranous organelles are surrounded by membranes that isolate their contents from the cytosol.

Ribosomes are freely scattered in the cytoplasm and thus are nonmembranous organelles.

Example Question #7 : Organelles

If a cell lacks endoplasmic reticulum (ER), one direct result will be that it cannot __________.

Possible Answers:

secrete proteins

reproduce itself

manufacture proteins

store, alter and package secretory products

produce substantial amounts of ATP

Correct answer:

secrete proteins

Explanation:

One of the functions of the endoplasmic reticulum is to secrete proteins.

It's other functions include: synthesis of secretory products, intracellular storage, transport, and calcium ion storage.

Example Question #8 : Organelles

What are the physical characteristics of mitochondria?

Possible Answers:

Stacks of flattened membranes containing chambers

Vesicles containing digestive enzymes

Double membrane, with inner membrane folds enclosing metabolic enzymes

Nucleoplasm containing nucleotides, enzymes, nucleoprotiens, and chromatin

Network of membranous channels extending throughout the cytoplasm

Correct answer:

Double membrane, with inner membrane folds enclosing metabolic enzymes

Explanation:

Mitochondria are organelles that have an unusual double membrane. An out membrane surround the entire organelle, and a second, inner membrane contains numerous folds, called cristae. Cristae increase the surface area exposes to the matrix of mitochondria.

Example Question #9 : Organelles

What is the outer boundary of the cell that separates the cell contents from the extracellular fluid?

Possible Answers:

Cell wall

Cytosol

Plasmalemma (plasma membrane)

Gated channel network

Glycocalyx

Correct answer:

Plasmalemma (plasma membrane)

Explanation:

The plasmalemma (plasma membrane) has a complex structure composed of phospholipids, proteins, glycolipids, and cholesterol. The phospholipids form two distinct layers that don't allow dissolved ions and water-soluble compounds to cross the plasmalemma. This makes the plasmalemma effective in isolating the cytoplasm from the surrounding fluid environment.

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