"[COVERED]: We discussed the kidney today. We began by discussing the overall function of the kidney, to fine-tune chemical balances, and to a lesser degree, excrete wastes (compared to the lungs). We continued by discussing how Filtration is accomplished, defining the different fractions of the blood, and discussing by way of analogy what happens to a compressed nonpermeable solution of osmoles. This ranged into a discussion of hydrostatic vs. oncotic pressure in capillaries in general. We then looked at the nephron piece by piece, relating the anatomy to the gross anatomy of the kidney, and showing how the structure and histology of each component helped accomplish its function. We started with the PCT and DCT. Discussing the DCT engendered a discussion of steroid hormones, their mechanism of action, and the RAAS. We next discussed the loop of Henle and the countercurrent exchange system. We then discussed the CCD and how it is ruled by ADH, which required a discussion of the etymology of ADH, and how it is an example of a peptide hormone. We then summarized and reviewed all the components, and throughout, kept a focus on what the chemical nature of the filtrate was, including its osmolarity.
[PROGRESS/CHALLENGES]: Initially, the student did not have a good understanding of Osmolarity, Oncotic pressure, or the different types of transport. Thus, we had to make quite a few side-jaunts into all those topics. However, by the end of the session, she did understand the kidney from a top-down perspective, and had some idea of how the questions on kidney physiology would be asked.
[EXTRA PRACTICE]: The student will do another full-length practice test, and when we meet on Monday, we will answer questions from that, and discuss the Endocrine System."