European History : Science and Technology

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for European History

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Science And Technology

Nicholas Copernicus developed ________________.

Possible Answers:

None of these

the initial heliocentric model of the universe

the initial geocentric model of the universe

the laws of gravity and motion

Correct answer:

the initial heliocentric model of the universe

Explanation:

Copernicus wrote On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres in the sixteenth century, and this work was published after his death. This work described a heliocentric model of the universe, in which the sun was posited as the center of the universe, with the planets revolving around it. Copernicus's model implicitly disputed the accuracy of the prevailing scientific model, the Ptolemaic or geocentric model, in which the earth was the center of the universe. Also, note that Copernicus's model did not recognize that planetary motion was elliptical.

Example Question #2 : Science And Technology

Which of the following is known for their pioneering work in the study of radiation?

Possible Answers:

Marie Curie

Isaac Newton

Aristotle

Copernicus

Correct answer:

Marie Curie

Explanation:

Copernicus proposed the heliocentric model of the solar system in Europe and did not study radiation, so he would not be the best choice. Aristotle was more a philosopher than scientist and he lived far before the discovery of radiation, so he would not be a good answer. Isaac Newton discovered classical mechanics but did not work on radiation, so he would not be the best answer. Lastly, Marie Curie is recognized for performing some of the pioneering work in radiation - her lab is still too radioactive to enter unprotected - so she would be the best choice.

Example Question #3 : Science And Technology

Which of the following famously proposed the theory of evolution by means of natural selection?

Possible Answers:

Isaac Newton

Albert Einstein

Watson and Crick

Bertrand Russel

Charles Darwin

Correct answer:

Charles Darwin

Explanation:

Bertrand Russel was a mathematician and philosopher and was not concerned with evolution, so he would not be the best choice. Watson and Crick discovered the double-helix structure of DNA, so they would not be the correct answer. Isaac Newton discovered classical mechanics, so he would not be a good choice. Albert Einstein lived after the discovery of evolution, so he would not be the best answer. Lastly, Charles Darwin famously published his book On the Origin of Species about evolution by natural selection, so he would be the best answer.

Example Question #4 : Science And Technology

Which of the following was the English group renowned for their opposition to emerging early industrial practices?

Possible Answers:

Amish

The Fourth Estate

Luddites

Protestants

Patricians

Correct answer:

Luddites

Explanation:

The Amish are an American religious group and not English at all, so they would not be the best choice. The Fourth Estate is a moniker given to the free press, who do not have a historical aversion to technology, so that would not be a good answer. The Patricians were the nobility of the Roman Republic, so they would not be a good choice. The Protestants is the umbrella term given to Christians who are not Catholic, and they are not uniformly English, so that would not be the best answer. The Luddites were a group of English textile workers that smashed industrial equipment to protest the loss of jobs to automation, so they would be the best answer here.

Example Question #5 : Science And Technology

Which of the following discovered the double-helix structure of DNA?

Possible Answers:

Marie Curie

Watson and Crick

Isaac Newton

Charles Darwin

Correct answer:

Watson and Crick

Explanation:

Isaac Newton discovered classical mechanics and did not work in the life sciences, so he would not be a good answer. Charles Darwin discovered evolution by natural selection, not the structure of DNA, so he would not be the best answer. Marie Curie did pioneering work in radiation, not the life sciences, so she would not be the best choice here. Finally, Crick and Watson are widely credited with the discovery of DNA's structure, so they would be the best choice.

Example Question #6 : Science And Technology

Which of the following scientists is most closely associated with the development of the heliocentric model of Earth's solar system?

Possible Answers:

Louis Pasteur

Marie Curie

Nicolaus Copernicus

Isaac Newton

Leonardo da Vinci

Correct answer:

Nicolaus Copernicus

Explanation:

Copernicus concluded through observation of the stars' movements in the sky that the sun is the center of the solar system. This contradicted the contemporary dogma of the Catholic Church, which taught that the sun and other stars revolved around the Earth.

Leonardo da Vinci was the famous Renaissance artist and inventor who painted the Mona Lisa.

Isaac Newton defined the Laws of Motion that explain gravity and other phenomena.

Marie Curie was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1903 for her discoveries involving radioactivity.

Louis Pasteur recognized the existence of bacteria and devised a process for destroying them in liquids (pasteurization).

Example Question #7 : Science And Technology

Which of the following is famous for publishing the book Principia Mathematica and for discovering classical mechanics?

Possible Answers:

Copernicus

Karl Popper

Isaac Newton

Leonardo DaVinci

Lord Kelvin

Correct answer:

Isaac Newton

Explanation:

Karl Popper was a 20th-century philosopher of science and he lived far after the discovery of classical mechanics, so he would not be the best choice. Copernicus proposed the heliocentric model of the solar system and he did not publish the book in question, so he would not be a good choice. Lord Kelvin famously created the temperature system that accounts for absolute zero, but he did not publish the book in question, so he would not be the best choice. DaVinci was a great inventor but he lived long before the discovery of classical mechanics, so he is not the correct answer. Lastly, Isaac Newton published the book in question and discovered classical mechanics, so he would be the best answer here.

Example Question #8 : Science And Technology

Which of the following proposed the heliocentric model of the solar system?

Possible Answers:

Confucius

Newton

DaVinci

Plato

Copernicus

Correct answer:

Copernicus

Explanation:

Confucius was a Chinese philosopher concerned mainly with social structure and not science, so he would not be the best answer here. DaVinci was a great inventor and painter but he did not do much work with astronomy, so he is not a good answer. Newton worked on physics and not astronomy, so he would not be the best choice for this question. Plato was a philosopher and did not work in the sciences as we understand them, so he too would not be a good answer. Lastly, Copernicus famously proposed and was persecuted for the heliocentric model, so he would be the best answer here.

Example Question #9 : Science And Technology

Which of the following is known for their contributions to thermodynamics and for correctly calculating the value of absolute zero?

Possible Answers:

Anders Celsius

Alan Turing

Isaac Newton

Lord Kelvin

Correct answer:

Lord Kelvin

Explanation:

Lord Kelvin helped formulate the first and second laws of thermodynamics and correctly calculated the value of absolute zero, so he would be the best answer. Isaac Newton did his most famous work in classical mechanics and did not work with thermodynamics, so he would not be the best choice. Anders Celsius proposed the temperature scale that bears his name but he did not perform the contributions in question, so he would not be the best answer. Finally, Alan Turing is considered the father of computer science, but he did not work in thermodynamics, so he would not be the correct answer here.

Example Question #10 : Science And Technology

Which of the following was a codebreaker during World War II, a renowned mathematician, and is widely considered to be one of the founders of modern computer science?

Possible Answers:

Alonzo Church

Stephen Hawking

Bertrand Russel

Isaac Newton

Alan Turing

Correct answer:

Alan Turing

Explanation:

Isaac Newton lived far before WWII, so he would not be a good answer for this question. Bertrand Russel was a prominent mathematician, but he did not work in computer science, so he would not be the correct answer here. Stephen Hawking was a brilliant physicist and mathematician, but he did not work in computer science, so he would not be the best choice. Alonzo Church also did important work in early computer science, however he was not a codebreaker, so he would not be the best answer. Finally, Alan Turing was a codebreaker, world-class mathematician, and he is considered one of the founders of modern computer science, so he would be the best answer.

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