European History : Sanitation and Healthcare

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for European History

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Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Sanitation And Healthcare

Which of the following is an invention from the Renaissance period?

Possible Answers:

Gunpowder

The flushing toilet

Carbonated water

The piano

The serrated knife

Correct answer:

The flushing toilet

Explanation:

The flushing toilet was invented in 1596 by John Harington and was called the Ajax. John was a grandson of Queen Elizabeth I and spent a lot of time at court. He became known for his risqué writings and sense of humor. After inventing the flushing toilet, he wrote a book entitled, “A new Discourse on a Stale Subject, the Metamorphosis of Ajax. It was supposed to be a book describing how his invention worked, but his work was actually a satire that talked negatively about the Earl of Leicester, one of the queen’s friends, which angered the queen and got Harington banned from court.

Example Question #2 : Sanitation And Healthcare

Which of the following did NOT contribute to healthier, more sanitary conditions in Europe in the late nineteenth century?

Possible Answers:

The discovery of germs

Better urban planning

Social Darwinism

Installation of sewers 

New public health laws 

Correct answer:

Social Darwinism

Explanation:

Social Darwinism applies Darwin's theory of natural selection to human affairs. The principle of "survival of the fittest" did not contribute to improvements in public health. Social Darwinism was, in fact, a doctrine supported by right-wing politicians who fought aggressively against the funding and establishment of social services. 

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