European History : Political Protest; Reforms; Revolution

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for European History

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Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Political Protest; Reforms; Revolution

Who was the leader of the infamous Jacobin Club during the French Reign of Terror from 1793 to 1794?

Possible Answers:

Marquis de Lafayette

Jacques-Pierre Brissot

Jean-Paul Marat

Maximilien Robespierre

Cardinal Richelieu

Correct answer:

Maximilien Robespierre

Explanation:

Maximilien Robespierre was the leader of the Jacobins during the infamous Reign of Terror (1793 to 1794).

He was well-known for spearheading efforts to arrest and execute thousands of individuals for the alleged crime of being an anti-revolutionary. He himself was arrested and subsequently guillotined on 28 July, 1794.

Example Question #2 : Political Protest; Reforms; Revolution

During the French Revolution, the ___________________ were considered the most radical left-wing political group.

Possible Answers:

Monarchiens

Jacobins

Feuillants

Cordeliers

Girondins

Correct answer:

Jacobins

Explanation:

The Jacobins most strongly embodied feelings for revolution against the French monarchy. Although the Cordeliers were left-leaning, they were not as confrontational or radical as the Jacobins. The other answers were centrist or right-wing groups, and are therefore incorrect.

Example Question #3 : Political Protest; Reforms; Revolution

The French Revolution was primarily carried out by members of which group?

Possible Answers:

The First Estate

None of these

The Huguenots 

The Third Estate

The Second Estate

Correct answer:

The Third Estate

Explanation:

Before the French Revolution, France was divided into three political classes, or estates. Members of the First Estate (the clergy) and the Second Estate (the nobility) enjoyed many privileges denied to the Third Estate, which made up most of the population, had few rights, and paid higher taxes. The Third Estate, increasingly dissatisfied with these unfair conditions, rebelled and overthrew the established monarchy.

Example Question #4 : Political Protest; Reforms; Revolution

Kristallnacht, meaning The Night of Broken Glass, was ______________.

Possible Answers:

a coordinated attack on Jewish people living in Germany in 1932, widely considered to be the beginning of The Final Solution and The Holocaust

a coordinated attack on Jewish people living in Germany in 1935, widely considered to be the beginning of The Final Solution and The Holocaust

None of these

a coordinated attack on Jewish people living in Germany in 1941, widely considered to be the beginning of The Final Solution and The Holocaust

a coordinated attack on Jewish people living in Germany in 1938, widely considered to be the beginning of The Final Solution and The Holocaust

Correct answer:

a coordinated attack on Jewish people living in Germany in 1938, widely considered to be the beginning of The Final Solution and The Holocaust

Explanation:

Kristallnacht was a coordinated attack on Jewish people living in Germany in 1938, widely considered to be the beginning of The Final Solution and The Holocaust. The event was carried out by German military authorities as well as German citizens. Over 1,000 synagogues were burned, as were 7,000 Jewish businesses and homes. The word Kristallnacht means "Night of Broken Glass", a name given because of the plethora of glass shards following Jewish property being vandalized.

Example Question #5 : Political Protest; Reforms; Revolution

Put the following in chronological order: Bolshevik Revolution, World War I, formation of the Soviet Union, and World War II.

Possible Answers:

Bolshevik Revolution, formation of the Soviet Union, World War I, World War II

World War I, Bolshevik Revolution, formation of the Soviet Union, World War II

Bolshevik Revolution, World War I, World War II, formation of the Soviet Union

World War I, World War II, formation of the Soviet Union, Bolshevik Revolution

None of these

Correct answer:

World War I, Bolshevik Revolution, formation of the Soviet Union, World War II

Explanation:

The correct chronology of these events is:

World War 1, Bolshevik Revolution, formation of the Soviet Union, World War II

The Bolshevik Revolution was enabled by Russia's participation in World War 1, which resulted in much of the Russian army being in a state of open mutiny. Following a brief period of dual leadership, the Soviet Union was formed in 1922 and lasted until 1991. The Soviet Union participated in World War 2 as an ally to the United States.

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