European History : Colonialism; Imperialism; Decolonization; Globalization

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for European History

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Colonialism; Imperialism; Decolonization; Globalization

What was the Boxer Rebellion?

Possible Answers:

A popular revolt in India against European colonial influences

A popular revolt in China against European colonial influences

A popular revolt in China against British opium importers

A popular revolt in India against British opium importers

Correct answer:

A popular revolt in China against European colonial influences

Explanation:

The Boxer Rebellion broke out in China in the last years of the nineteenth century and was eventually crushed by the combined efforts of local government administrators and the European powers in 1900. The rebellion broke out in China due to anger directed at the growing influence of European powers in Chinese affairs.

Example Question #2 : Colonialism; Imperialism; Decolonization; Globalization

The process of a nation or empire sending some of its population to take over and settle in foreign territory is called __________________.

Possible Answers:

colonialism

democratization

nationalism

communalism

revolution

Correct answer:

colonialism

Explanation:

Many European nations and empires practiced colonialism, the act of colonizing other lands - often destroying the native cultures already existing there. This was usually done to take advantage of the resources the land contained, or to simply spread an empire's global influence. The other answers are incorrect because they refer to other political processes.

Example Question #3 : Colonialism; Imperialism; Decolonization; Globalization

At the Berlin Conference of 1884, European leaders met to settle claims regarding the colonization of which continent?

Possible Answers:

Antarctica

Africa

North America

South America

Asia

Correct answer:

Africa

Explanation:

European leaders met in Berlin in 1884 to decide which European nations would be able to colonize which regions of Africa. Many of the boundaries they set were drawn arbitrarily, ignoring the existing ethnic and cultural boundaries of the people who already lived there.

Example Question #4 : Colonialism; Imperialism; Decolonization; Globalization

Which was NOT a motivating factor for European Imperialism in the 19th century?

Possible Answers:

need for cheap sources of labor

competition for natural resources

ethnocentrism

desire to obtain a favorable balance of trade

Marxism

Correct answer:

Marxism

Explanation:

Marxism focuses on the economic class struggle between the rich and the poor. Its ideology does not provide a motivation for Imperialism. All the other choices are motivating factors for Imperialism.

Colonizing another country provides access to their natural resources, an available and cheap source of labor from its inhabitants, and a market to which to sell manufactured goods, all of which contribute to a favorable balance of trade.

Ethnocentrism is the belief that one's culture is superior to others. Europeans justified Imperialism by stating they were "civilizing" inferior cultures by introducing them (sometimes by force) to European language, culture and religion.

Example Question #5 : Colonialism; Imperialism; Decolonization; Globalization

An imperialist power takes control over what three aspects of another people/country?

Possible Answers:

Leaders, government, and trade

Education, territory, and resources

Social, political, and economic

Farming, religion, and language

Correct answer:

Social, political, and economic

Explanation:

When a country becomes imperialistic (an imperial power, or ruler over large territory), they take control over another country or people's economy (money/trade), social (their culture/religion/language), and political (government/leaders/rulers/laws) areas or ways of life. Often, a country takes control in order to take advantage of natural resources in an attempt to make more money and become all-powerful.

Example Question #6 : Colonialism; Imperialism; Decolonization; Globalization

How is "colonialism" different from "imperialism"?

Possible Answers:

Imperialism is the easier method of taking over another country

Colonialism takes over two aspects of another country, but imperialism takes over three

Colonialism is what most powerful countries preferred to achieve

Colonialism will only gain money for the pursuant country

Correct answer:

Colonialism will only gain money for the pursuant country

Explanation:

Colonialism is achieved when a country only settles a territory or takes advantage of its commerce, or trade. Colonialism does not intend to take control of the territory as a whole like imperialism, which gain control of much, much more. In a colony, the people native to the area still have control of many aspects of their lives, whereas territories of an empire are essentially absorbed into the mother country.

Example Question #7 : Colonialism; Imperialism; Decolonization; Globalization

What was a justification used for European imperialism?

Possible Answers:

Social Darwinism

Free ownership

Divine right

Manifest Destiny

Correct answer:

Social Darwinism

Explanation:

Social Darwinism was a theory developed by Herbert Spencer, a social engineer pre-dating Charles Darwin's evolution theories. Spencer coined the phrase "survival of the fittest", meaning those that are the most fit or able should, and will, survive compared to those that are weaker.

To help justify the complete take over of other civilizations, imperialists argued that they were the more fit members of the human race and everyone else were weak and did not deserve to survive, have power/authority, or identity.

Example Question #8 : Colonialism; Imperialism; Decolonization; Globalization

Rice, cotton, tobacco, sugar, guns, cloth, beads, and slaves

These goods and/or resources were exchanged along which major colonial trading route?

Possible Answers:

Middle Passage

Columbian Exchange

Silk Road

Triangle Trade

Correct answer:

Triangle Trade

Explanation:

The Triangle Trade included three major passages across the Atlantic Ocean between the years 1600-1800, creating the shape of a triangle between Europe, Africa, and North America. The good listed in the question (especially raw goods, and slaves) were traded along these routes and colonial powers came to count on this trade in their economies.

Ultimately, a country would pay for its imports by way of its exports (an exchange of goods).

Example Question #9 : Colonialism; Imperialism; Decolonization; Globalization

King Leopold II of Belgium (King of Belgians 1865-1909), is a well-known imperialist because ________________.

Possible Answers:

he was able to take control of the Congo's rain forest faster than other imperialists obtained their territories

he allowed the native rulers to assume some profit made from crops and trade

he encouraged peaceful relationships between his forces and the natives

he was infamous for the inhumane treatment of native peoples of the Belgian Congo

Correct answer:

he was infamous for the inhumane treatment of native peoples of the Belgian Congo

Explanation:

King Leopold II of Belgium only gained control of a small piece of Africa (Belgian Congo), and he maintained support from his subjects at home through deception. King Leopold II portrayed himself as an honorable missionary helping the natives, with a mission to better the quality of their lives. In reality, however, he gave leadership to individuals who allowed native workers who were slaves to be maimed or murdered as punishment for underperformance. Furthermore, under King Leopold's leadership, the native Congolese experienced what present-day experts would describe as genocidal acts (such as rape, violence, oppression, death, overall safety and liberty threatened).

One positive outcome from King Leopold's atrocious legacy is modern-day humanitarianism. Belgian subjects heard of his violations against human rights and activated against them.

Example Question #10 : Colonialism; Imperialism; Decolonization; Globalization

Which option lists the European colonial powers from most to least powerful?

Possible Answers:

Spain, Belgium, England

England, France, Spain, Portugal, Holland

Portugal, France, Germany

France, England, Holland

Correct answer:

England, France, Spain, Portugal, Holland

Explanation:

England was at the front of the imperialism race because they had already developed their overseas colonies/territories by the beginning of the 19th century. They had colonies on every continent and maintained them over time, but the other European nations either had a late start, did not have as many colonies, or lost the colonies for various reasons (rebellion, for instance).

One reason England was able to become so powerful and maintain it colonies was because of wealth and man power.

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